Blood from patients treated with ivermectin can kill mosquitos. Our results indicate that ivermectin mass drug administration to humans could be a potential malaria control tool to aid malaria elimination efforts in South America.
Primaquine is being promoted actively to block the transmission of falciparum malaria parasites between humans and mosquitoes to reduce the spread of highly resistant malaria ‘superbugs.’ In response, Bob Taylor and colleagues developed a primaquine dosing scheme based on age. This will be useful where there are no functioning weighing scales and when primaquine mass drug treatment will be given.
The human papilloma virus is primarily known as the causative agent of cervical cancer, but it also causes anal cancer. It is easily transmitted, but often cleared, and only few infections develop into cancer. We investigated the rate of infection and clearance in the anal canal among men who have sex with men.
The malaria parasite is a major cause of illness and deaths throughout the tropics. To survive, the malaria parasite needs to be transmitted by mosquitos form person to person. In this paper Martin Rono and colleagues show at the cellular and molecular level how the parasite balances its investment between growing efficiently in humans and maximising the chances of being transmitted by mosquitos, depending on the local environment.
Two mass drug administrations against falciparum malaria were conducted in 2015–16, one as operational research in northern Cambodia, and the other as a clinical trial in western Cambodia. During an April 2017 workshop in Phnom Penh the field teams from Médecins Sans Frontières and the Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit discussed lessons for future mass drug administrations.
Timely access to emergency care can substantially reduce mortality. Work undertaken in Professor Bob Snow’s group in Kenya, has developed the first ever geocoded inventory of public hospitals in Africa. Spatial analysis across 48 countries showed that 29% of people are located more than 2-h travel time from the nearest hospital. With substantial variations within and between countries, innovative targeting of emergency care services is necessary to reduce inequities.
Podoconiosis, also known as nonfilarial elephantiasis, is a poorly understood neglected tropical disease. Using a combination of currently available epidemiological data as well as nationwide mapping survey and geostatistical modelling, Dr Abdisalan Noor and colleagues demonstrated that podoconiosis is highly endemic in Ethiopia and interventions need to be scaled-up rapidly.
The search is on for good measures of healthcare quality as LMIC health systems focus on effective coverage. In a new publication the Health Services team in Nairobi recently validated the Paediatric Admission Quality of Care (PAQC) score they had earlier developed, showing higher quality scores were associated with lower mortality for hospitalised children in Kenya.
Ethics guidelines have evolved to protect vulnerable groups such as pregnant women from research. This has resulted in a lack of research in these populations making them even more vulnerable because of the lack of evidence-based medical care. In this paper, Professor Phaik Yeong Cheah and her collaborators discuss how regulatory frameworks can sometimes lead to a generalized exclusion of pregnant women from research.
OUCRU researcher Lauren Carrington has provided evidence supporting the introduction of Wolbachia, a bacteria that manipulates its host reproductive system, into areas where there are dengue virus-transmitting mosquitoes, as a biocontrol method to reduce the transmission of dengue and other arboviruses.