An inspiring doctor and scientist of great compassion and intellect, Sir David Weatherall died 8 Dec 2018. A Nuffield Professor of Medicine, founder of the MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine and a member of Wellcome’s Board throughout the 1990s, Sir David was instrumental in the creation of MORU back in 1979.
Posted 31/08/2022. Substandard and falsified anti-infectives used in human and animals are common, especially in Low- and Middle-Income countries, leading to poor clinical outcomes, adverse drug reactions, economic losses, mistrust in health systems and potentially leading to AMR emergence and spread. One Health research is needed to assess their impact on AMR, by Celine Caillet and colleagues.
Posted 05/08/2022. During a rapidly unfolding catastrophic pandemic, research is most needed to inform on nature, containment and prevention of the pandemic. Ethics review and regulatory authorities are important gatekeepers for research, and can facilitate scientifically rigorous and ethically sound relevant research. Alex Hinga, Dorcas Kamuya and colleagues examined how research review was undertaken during COVID19 in one of the review systems in Kenya, factors that enabled and/or hindered accelerated review including the political landscape, and make some recommendations for review systems in LMICs.
Posted 03/08/2022. Naomi Muinga and colleagues report on a process of implementing a co-designed, paper-based newborn monitoring chart in a network of hospitals in Kenya. While the chart was well-received, challenges with full uptake persist and offer opportunities to strengthen the process as well as future implementations.
Posted 22/07/2022. In recognition of emergent data on what the barriers and enablers are to long-term, sustainable capabilities to run studies, The Global Health Network and EDCTP developed the ‘EDCTP Knowledge Hub’: a set of online, open access, cross-cutting tools and resources to support the planning, writing and delivery of high-quality health research studies, available to research staff wherever they are in the world, especially those in low-resource settings. By Samuel Driver and colleagues
Posted 13/07/2022. Many of the antibiotics used in animal farms in Southeast Asia are critically important for humans. The scarcity of standardised antibiotic and livestock quantification methods limits existing literature. Ease of access to poorly regulate antibiotics, inaccessible quality animal healthcare, and insufficient preventive services likely drive inappropriate antibiotic use, by Aronrag Meeyai and colleagues.
Posted 04/10/2017. Recruiting 183 acute melioidosis patients and 21 control subjects in order to explore immune factors associated with survival status and diabetes, this study identified two class I HLA alleles associated with increased risk of death during melioidosis. Stronger T cell responses to nine immunodominant antigens were observed in those who survived, with responses to one of these – GroEL – observed to be impaired in patients with diabetes.
Posted 24/05/2022. Drug-resistant malaria is now a critical public health emergency on a global scale. The artemisinin resistance confirmed recently in Rwanda and Uganda is likely just the ‘tip of the spear’, with its spread likely to soon occur widely across endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Philippe Guerin and colleagues make five feasible recommendations, based on learnings from the COVID-19 experience on collecting, sharing and disseminating these critical data efficiently.
Posted 17/05/2022. In this study, leveraging a Kenyan Clinical Information Network, Timothy Tuti, Mike English and colleagues set out to evaluate at the clinical team level, if and how a comprehensive healthcare-specific feedback theory used to design and implement pharmacists-championed feedback strategies could help improve medication prescribing accuracy during inpatient neonatal care.
Posted 11/05/2022. Yingxi Zhao and colleagues used data from a national health facility assessment to understand the capacity of Kenya internship hospital to provide internship training for medical doctors. They highlight the major gaps in staffing, equipment and service availability in those hospitals and call for more stringent and regular review and re-accreditation of internship hospitals to provide appropriate and well-resourced training.
Posted 22/02/2022. In many sub-Saharan African countries, including Kenya, the use of mortality and morbidity audits in maternal and perinatal/neonatal care as an avenue for learning and improving care delivery is sub-optimal due to structural, organizational, and human barriers. In this exploratory qualitative study, Joyline Jepkosgei and colleagues examined process-related factors that generally influence M&M audits including health workers’ interactions and their experiences, institutional cultures, and broader health system contextual influences, which remain inadequately explored.
Posted 25/03/2022. Alun Davies and colleagues used Participatory Video (PV) to explore how engagement with researchers influenced Kenyan school students’ perceptions of research and aspirations. PV highlighted the complex context in which engagement is situated where students’ time and attention is competed for against curricular, extracurricular, and social-cultural factors. We emphasise the importance of ensuring that engagement benefits students.
Posted 23/03/2022. In this review, Piero Olliaro and colleague Els Torreele analyse the successes and failures with coronavirus disease 2019 and Ebola virus disease in shaping health systems and research for infectious disease epidemics. They highlight that epidemic preparedness means also tackling a series of ongoing outbreaks and make the case for a coordinated, public health-driven, portfolio approach.
Posted 19/01/2022. Rita Njeru, Sassy Molyneux and colleagues examine the role of community health workers in supporting post-discharge recovery in young undernourished children. The authors argue that a targeted and multi-pronged approach initiated before or on discharge is needed, supported by clear guidance and training. The ways in which any new tasks or personnel are incorporated into hospital and broader health system hierarchies and systems need careful planning and tracking.
Posted 16/11/2021. In response to the Zika epidemic the Research Preparedness Network (REDe) engaged local health research communities to enhance long-term research capacity building. This publication is based on a call to fund research training workshops in Brazil and captures the process and impact of this approach. REDe also developed an implementation toolkit to foster similar initiatives and ultimately contribute to local ownership in global health.
Posted 12/11/2021. Global antibiotic consumption rates increased by 46 percent in the last two decades, according to the first study to provide longitudinal estimates of human consumption in 204 countries from 2000 to 2018. Annie Browne, Christiane Dolecek and colleagues used a novel approach that deployed statistical modelling techniques and incorporated multiple data sources, to help us address a number of public health challenges, from combating drug resistant infections to providing access to basic treatment
Posted 21/09/2021. The WHO's ‘5 moments’ is the dominant paradigm for hand hygiene globally. While ‘5 moments' has many benefits and has had a significant clinical impact, it also has many weaknesses. Jacob McKnight and colleagues explore how this important paradigm can be improved to reflect the latest research in hand hygiene.
Posted 27/08/2021. Demographic and epidemiological changes have prompted thinking on the need to broaden the child health agenda to include care for paediatric complex and chronic conditions, however such expansion is threatened by workforce shortages. Yingxi Zhao and colleagues reviewed how task sharing could support expanded paediatrics services provision in LMICs, especially beyond acute infectious diseases and malnutrition that are widely and historically shifted.
Posted 06/08/2021. Preprints are increasingly being used to share non-peer-reviewed manuscripts to enable the rapid dissemination of research. In particular, they have become an important source of information for wider audiences keen to follow COVID-19 research developments, including news, social media and policymakers. This practice raises several challenges in publication ethics and integrity. Paul Newton and colleagues set out the need for good practice.
Posted 03/08/2021. Ribavirin is the only available Lassa fever treatment. The rationale for using ribavirin is based on one clinical study conducted in the early 1980s. However, reanalysis by Alex Salam and colleagues of previous unpublished data reveals that ribavirin may actually be harmful in some Lassa fever patients. An urgent reevaluation of ribavirin is therefore needed.
Posted 23/07/2021. Effective management and leadership are essential for everyday health system resilience, but health managers are often under-prepared and under-supported in these roles. Particular challenges have been observed in communication skills, emotional competence and supportive oversight. Jacinta Nzinga and colleagues share their learning from implementing a package of leadership development interventions in Kenya
We are delighted to announce that four of our researchers have been awarded the title of Professor, in recognition of their research achievements, contribution to teaching, and contribution to the general work of the Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford.
The team behind the world-leading RECOVERY trial of COVID-19 treatments are leading a new study investigating a potential treatment for people who have been diagnosed with monkeypox. The National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) has commissioned and funded the study. The first patients have now been recruited.
The Medicine Quality Research Group organised a multidisciplinary hybrid meeting at Keble College, Oxford, July 3 to 6, for the FORESFA project ‘Forensic epidemiology and impact of substandard and falsified antimicrobials on public health’, funded by a Wellcome Collaborative Award.
MORU Tropical Health Network researchers in Southeast Asia study various aspects of hepatitis B and C, infections that can lead to chronic liver diseases, and complications like liver cancer or cirrhosis. Researchers at MOCRU work on treatment for hepatitis C, a frequent opportunistic infection in HIV patients. MORU’s Clinical Pharmacology conducts two trials on possible treatments of hepatitis C. Hepatitis B is frequently transmitted from mother to child at birth, and SMRU researchers study mothers’ knowledge and behaviour, as well as prevention.