Artificial intelligence-derived 3-Way Concentration-dependent Antagonism of Gatifloxacin, Pyrazinamide, and Rifampicin During Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
Pasipanodya JG., Smythe W., Merle CS., Olliaro PL., Deshpande D., Magombedze G., McIlleron H., Gumbo T.
Background:In the experimental arm of the OFLOTUB trial, gatifloxacin replaced ethambutol in the standard 4-month regimen for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis. The study included a nested pharmacokinetic (PK) study. We sought to determine if PK variability played a role in patient outcomes. Methods:Patients recruited in the trial were followed for 24 months, and relapse ascertained using spoligotyping. Blood was drawn for drug concentrations on 2 separate days during the first 2 months of therapy, and compartmental PK analyses was performed. Failure to attain sustained sputum culture conversion at the end of treatment, relapse, or death during follow-up defined therapy failure. In addition to standard statistical analyses, we utilized an ensemble of machine-learning methods to identify patterns and predictors of therapy failure from among 27 clinical and laboratory features. Results:Of 126 patients, 95 (75%) had favorable outcomes and 19 (15%) failed therapy, relapsed, or died. Pyrazinamide and rifampicin peak concentrations and area under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) were ranked higher (more important) than gatifloxacin AUCs. The distribution of individual drug concentrations and their ranking varied significantly between South African and West African trial sites; however, drug concentrations still accounted for 31% and 75% of variance of outcomes, respectively. We identified a 3-way antagonistic interaction of pyrazinamide, gatifloxacin, and rifampicin concentrations. These negative interactions disappeared if rifampicin peak concentration was above 7 mg/L. Conclusions:Concentration-dependent antagonism contributed to death, relapse, and therapy failure but was abrogated by high rifampicin concentrations. Therefore, increasing both rifampin and gatifloxacin doses could improve outcomes. Clinical Trials Registration:NCT00216385.