Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Since the early 1980s, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) which is, in general, a rural zoonotic disease, has spread to the urban centers of the north, and now the south and west of Brazil. The principal drivers differ between cities, though human migration, large urban canid populations (animal reservoir), and a decidedly peripatetic and adaptable sand fly vector are the primary forces. The exact number of urban cases remains unclear as a result of challenges with surveillance. However, the number of urban cases registered continues to increase annually. Most control initiatives (e.g. culling infected dogs and household spraying to kill the sand fly) could be effective, but have proven hard to maintain at large scales due to logistical, financial and other reasons. In this article, the urbanization of VL in Brazil is reviewed, touching on these and other topics related to controlling VL within and outside Brazil.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.pt.2011.04.001

Type

Journal

Trends in parasitology

Publication Date

09/2011

Volume

27

Pages

403 - 409

Addresses

Graduate Program in Public Health Studies, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

Keywords

Animals, Mammals, Dogs, Humans, Psychodidae, Leishmania, Leishmaniasis, Visceral, Insect Bites and Stings, Disease Reservoirs, Insect Vectors, Communicable Disease Control, Poverty, Rural Population, Urban Population, Brazil