Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted by the industry are expensive, especially trials conducted for registration of new drugs for multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Lower-cost investigator-initiated trials have recently been successful in recruiting patients with severe infections caused by MDR bacteria. In this personal viewpoint, we contrast the aims, methods and resulting costs of industry-led and investigator-initiated trials and ask whether contemporary registration trial costs are justified. Contract research organizations, delivering and monitoring industry-sponsored trials at a significant cost, have little incentive to make trials more efficient or less expensive. The value of universal monitoring of all trial data is questionable. We propose that clinical trial networks play a more influential role in RCT design and planning, lead adaptive risk-based trial monitoring, and work with the industry to maximize efficient recruitment and lower costs in registration trials for the approval of new antimicrobials.

Original publication





Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Publication Date



Infectious Diseases Institute, Rambam Health Care Campus and The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.