Multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing uropathogens in children in Bhaktapur, Nepal
Raya GB., Dhoubhadel BG., Shrestha D., Raya S., Laghu U., Shah A., Raya BB., Kafle R., Parry CM., Ariyoshi K.
Background: The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing uropathogens has ]complicated the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI). Paediatric UTI is a common illness, which if not treated properly, may lead to acute and long-term complications, such as renal abscess, septicaemia, and renal scarring. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MDR and ESBL-producing uropathogens among children. Methods: During the study period (April 2017-April 2018), midstream urine samples were collected following aseptic procedures from children < 16 years in Siddhi Memorial Hospital. Standard culture and biochemical tests were performed to identify uropathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method following Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. ESBL-producing uropathogens were screened by ceftazidime (30 μg) and cefotaxime (30 μg) discs, and confirmed by the combination disc tests: ceftazidime + clavulanic acid (30/10 μg) or cefotaxime + clavulanic acid (30/10 μg) as recommended by CLSI. Results: We processed 5545 non-repeated urine samples from the children with symptoms of UTI. A significant growth of uropathogens was observed in 203 samples (3.7%). The median age of the children was 24 months (interquartile range (IQR), 12-53 months). Escherichia coli (n = 158, 77.8%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 30, 14.8%) were common among the uropathogens. Among them, 80.3% were resistant to amoxycillin and 51.2% were resistant to cotrimoxazole. Most of them were susceptible to amikacin,nitrofurantoin, and ofloxacin. MDR was detected in 34.5% (n = 70/203) and ESBL producers in 24.6% (n = 50/203) of them. The proportion of MDR isolates was higher in children < 5 years (n = 59/153, 38.6%) than children ? 5 years (n = 11/50, 22%) (P = 0.03). Conclusions:Nitrofurantoin, ofloxacin, and amikacin can be used for the empirical treatment for UTI in children in Bhaktapur, Nepal.MDR and ESBL-producing uropathogens are prevalent; this warrants a continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance.