Endovascular Therapy for Large Vessel Vasculopathy in HIV-infected Patients.
Pillay B., Ramdial PK., Naidoo DP., Sartorius B., Singh D.
ObjectivesTo evaluate outcomes after endovascular treatment of patients with aneurysmal or occlusive vasculopathy in HIV-infected patients.MethodsRetrospective analysis of a prospective database of treatment outcomes in patients with HIV related vasculopathies between April 2005 and September 2015.ResultsSixty HIV patients presented with post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm formation (n = 7), aneurysmal disease (n = 24) or occlusive disease (n = 29 (48%)). The majority were male (42/60 (70%)), with a mean age of 43.9 years (SD ± 12.6). All seven patients with a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm were treated by insertion of a covered stent (n = 6) or coiling (n = 1). All were successfully treated at 30 days, but only one patient returned for late surveillance. 23/24 patients who underwent insertion of a stent graft/covered stent for aneurysmal disease returned for 30 day review (one asymptomatic stent graft occlusion). Only 11 patients attended for late surveillance; 9/11 were asymptomatic with patent stent grafts. Late stent occlusion occurred in two (no further action (n = 1), major limb amputation (n = 1). In the 29 patients who underwent endovascular treatment for occlusive disease, 9 (31%) had immediate treatment failure (including 8 amputations (28%)). Of the sixteen who returned for serial review, 8 (50%) suffered further complications including 4 amputations. Overall, 12/29 treated patients (41%) ultimately underwent amputation.ConclusionsIn the immediate short term, an 'endovascular first' strategy was associated with good outcomes in HIV patients with aneurysmal disease. By contrast, outcomes were poor in HIV patients with occlusive disease. Whether this relates to the underlying natural history of HIV occlusive vasculopathies remains unclear. One major problem in trying to formulate meaningful management strategies is a generalised reluctance for HIV patients to return for surveillance.