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ObjectiveTo analyse the effectiveness of a household conditional cash transfer programme (CCT) on antenatal care (ANC) coverage reported by women and ANC quality reported by midwives.DesignThe CCT was piloted as a cluster randomised control trial in 2007. Intent-to-treat parameters were estimated using linear regression and logistic regression.SettingSecondary analysis of the longitudinal CCT impact evaluation survey, conducted in 2007 and 2009. This included 6869 pregnancies and 1407 midwives in 180 control subdistricts and 180 treated subdistricts in Indonesia.Outcome measuresANC component coverage index, a composite measure of each ANC service component as self-reported by women, and ANC provider quality index, a composite measure of ANC service provided as self-reported by midwives. Each index was created by principal component analysis (PCA). Specific ANC component items were also assessed.ResultsThe CCT was associated with improved ANC component coverage index by 0.07 SD (95% CI 0.002 to 0.141). Women were more likely to receive the following assessments: weight (OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.95)), height (OR 1.41 (95% CI 1.247 to 1.947)), blood pressure (OR 1.36 (95% CI 1.045 to 1.761)), fundal height measurements (OR 1.65 (95% CI 1.372 to 1.992)), fetal heart beat monitoring (OR 1.29 (95% CI 1.006 to 1.653)), external pelvic examination (OR 1.28 (95% CI 1.086 to 1.505)), iron-folic acid pills (OR 1.42 (95% CI 1.081 to 1.859)) and information on pregnancy complications (OR 2.09 (95% CI 1.724 to 2.551)). On the supply side, the CCT had no significant effect on the ANC provider quality index based on reports from midwives.ConclusionsThe CCT programme improved ANC coverage for women, but midwives did not improve ANC quality. The results suggest that enhanced ANC utilisation may not be sufficient to improve health outcomes, and steps to improve ANC quality are essential for programme impact.

Original publication





BMJ open

Publication Date





Keough School of Global Affairs, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA.


Humans, Pregnancy Complications, Pregnancy Outcome, Prenatal Care, Linear Models, Logistic Models, Pilot Projects, Family Characteristics, Pregnancy, Adult, Public Assistance, Health Services Accessibility, Indonesia, Female, Self Report, Healthcare Financing