Profiling of humoral immune responses to norovirus in children across Europe
Villabruna N., Izquierdo-Lara RW., Schapendonk CME., de Bruin E., Chandler F., Thao TTN., Westerhuis BM., van Beek J., Sigfrid L., Giaquinto C., Goossens H., Bielicki JA., Kohns Vasconcelos M., Fraaij PLA., Koopmans MPG., de Graaf M.
Norovirus is a leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis. More than 30 genotypes circulate in humans, some are common, and others are only sporadically detected. Here, we investigated whether serology can be used to determine which genotypes infect children. We established a multiplex protein microarray with structural and non-structural norovirus antigens that allowed simultaneous antibody testing against 30 human GI and GII genotypes. Antibody responses of sera obtained from 287 children aged < 1 month to 5.5 years were profiled. Most specific IgG and IgA responses were directed against the GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6 capsid genotypes. While we detected antibody responses against rare genotypes, we found no evidence for wide circulation. We also detected genotype-specific antibodies against the non-structural proteins p48 and p22 in sera of older children. In this study, we show the age-dependent antibody responses to a broad range of norovirus capsid and polymerase genotypes, which will aid in the development of vaccines.