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South Africa continues to be burdened by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB). In Cape Town, the epidemic of HIV-TB co-infection is as high as 70%. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) has increased in frequency on renal biopsy. This study aimed to determine GIN prevalence and causes in HIV-positive patients as well as renal outcomes, patient survival and associated factors. This observational cohort study reviewed HIV-positive renal biopsies for GIN from 2005 to 2012. Causes of GIN (medications, TB, fungal and other), and baseline characteristics were analysed. A comparison of baseline data, renal function and survival was made between GIN and non-GIN cohorts. There were 45/316 biopsies demonstrating GIN. TB was the likely cause of GIN in 27 (60%) and 9 (20%) were due to a drug. Low estimated glomerular filtration rate was a statistically significant factor associated with mortality in both GIN (P = 0.045) and non-GIN cohorts (P 

Original publication





Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)

Publication Date





681 - 688


Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.


Kidney, Humans, Tuberculosis, HIV Infections, Nephritis, Interstitial, Granuloma, Biopsy, Prevalence, Logistic Models, Retrospective Studies, Adult, Middle Aged, Female, Male