P falciparum and P vivax malaria in pregnancy both increase stillbirth risk, which is likely to increase as endemicity declines. A study by SMRU and University of Melbourne researchers shows that better P falciparum malaria control efforts could prevent up to 1 in 5 to 8 stillbirths in sub-Saharan Africa.
In a paper published in The Lancet this week (12th October 2017), Professor Peter Horby outlines potential epidemics in Africa. It is difficult to predict when and where new epidemics might occur so we can be better prepared and have a proactive response. This modelling is based on information on each virus as well as governance, communication, ...
Severe malnutrition remains common in low-income countries, principally among young children. It usually arises from poor sanitation and infections, besides food insecurity. This comprehensive review by Professor James Berkley describes how research is needed, using modern clinic and laboratory tools, to better understand changes in metabolism, infections and the immune system to improve treatment.
Melioidosis is a neglected tropical disease estimated to kill 89,000 people a year across tropical regions and a vaccine is urgently required. In this collaboration with Imperial College, Professor Susanna Dunachie report for the first time a link between people with the HLA-B*46 genotype and around a three-fold increased risk of death. Survival from melioidosis is correlated with immune responses to nine key proteins from the causative bacteria, Burkholderia pseudomallei. This gives the foundation for development of an effective vaccine.
Professor Phaik Yeong Cheah and colleagues published a paper describing their experience and challenges engaging with communities involved in the Targeted Malaria Elimination initiative in Karen State, Myanmar. The report gives a detailed account of the activities conducted and challenges encountered which included difficulties explaining concepts like drug resistance and submicroscopic infection.
Ric Price shows that that primaquine is substantially less effective for preventing relapses of vivax malaria in real-world practice than is predicted by clinical efficacy trials and that this is a likely consequence of incomplete adherence to treatment. Efforts to improve adherence to primaquine and to develop alternative drugs with shorter dosing regimens and greater patient tolerability are needed to achieve the significant public health benefits of P. vivax radical cure.
Amanda Rojek and Peter Horby published a review aimed at clinicians who may treat patients with Ebola Virus Disease. This review outlines advances in understanding the clinical presentation, outcomes and long term sequelae of the disease, and outlines the status of experimental vaccines and treatments.
Changing the practices of health care workers in multiple hospitals in low-income settings is a major contemporary challenge that requires people to think about the complex set of influences that affect clinicians’ behaviour. In this report, Professor Mike English describes a multi-layered strategy utilising a new implementation typology linked to overarching theories of change.
Can faster progress be made in the fight against malaria by targeting interventions to where they will have the most impact? Health economists and mathematical modellers from the Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit have developed an approach to use maps of disease risk together with models of the transmission of disease and the costs and effectiveness of malaria interventions to help local decision makers design more impactful malaria control and elimination programmes.
In more than 50,000 pregnancies where 16% of women had malaria infection, the odds of small for gestational age and preterm birth following falciparum, and vivax malaria, were quantified. These newborn effects have life-long implications and efforts to effectively prevent malaria in pregnancy must be pursued.