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MICRoBE is investigating and quantifying levels and trends of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption across the globe and over time to help inform policy and interventions. This includes quantifying health loss due to drug resistant infections (in collaboration with the Global Burden of Disease study), investigating the drivers of resistance as well as the impact of health system structures.

Oxford Research Group Anti-Microbial Consumption and Resistance Burden Estimation (MICROBE)

Establishment of the largest antibiotic consumption and AMR testing data repository platform, targeted data acquisition and capacity building in priority low- and middle-income countries, antibiotic consumption modelling and AMR modelling for priority pathogen-drug combinations coupled with proposed establishment of a WHO collaborating centre, and attributable burden fraction estimation for priority AMR pathogen-drug combinations.

Global antibiotic consumption and use

Map showing the global antibiotic consumption per country, showing DDDs (defined daily doses) per 1000 per day.Global Research on Antimicrobial resistance (GRAM), brings together researchers from around the world to develop the evidence base for understanding one of our most pressing global health challenges, the threat of antimicrobial resistance.

Visit the GRAM website

AMR is responsible for over a million deaths per year

World map of global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance, colour-coded by country, showing the percentage of Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coliAntimicrobial resistance is responsible for at least 1.27 million deaths per year, according to a study published in The Lancet by the Global Research on AntiMicrobial resistance (GRAM) project

This paper provides the most comprehensive estimates of the global impact of antibiotic resistance to date and reveals that AMR has now become a leading cause of death globally. Urgent action is needed from policymakers and health communities to avoid further preventable deaths.


Antibiotic sinking boat, #AMRSOSAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now threatening healthcare systems worldwide. As antibiotics become ineffective, physicians are left powerless to treat common infections.

That leaves us asking the question: how can we prevent antimicrobial resistance in 2022?

Read the full global research on antimicrobial resistance pape: Global burden of bacterial AMR in 204 countries and territories in 2019