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We would like to thank the following collaborators for sharing data and expertise. Their support and dedication is essential to our work to estimate the global burden of antimicrobial resistance.


  • Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB) of the World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Prof Mike Sharland, and Dr Yingfen Hsia, GARPEC (Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing, and Efficacy Among Neonates and Children) project, St George's Hospital, University of London (SGUL), and the Penta Foundation, Padua, Italy.
  • The Childhood Acute Illness & Nutrition (CHAIN) Network investigators (primary contacts: Prof Jay Berkley and Prof Judd Walson).
  • Dr Victor Daniel Rosenthal, International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • The Strategic Typhoid Alliance Across Africa and Asia (STRATAA) Study Consortium, with sites in Blantyre, Malawi; Dhaka, Bangladesh; and, Kathmandu, Nepal.


  • Prof Nick Feasey, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme (MLW), Blantyre, Malawi, and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), Liverpool, United Kingdom.
  • Dr Daniel Eibach, and Dr Ralf Krumkamp, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine (BNITM), Hamburg, Germany, and Dr John Amuasi, Kumasi Collaborative Centre for Research in Tropical Medicine (KCCR), Kumasi, Ghana.
  • Dr Seymour Waner, Lancet Laboratories, Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • Dr François-Xavier Babin, Dr Mathieu Raad, Dr Laurent Raskine, Dr Nicolas Steenkeste, Mérieux Foundation, Lyon, France, and Antananarivo, Madagascar.
  • Dr Florian Marks, Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program, International Vaccine Institute (IVI), Seoul, Republic of Korea, and University of Cambridge, UK.
  • Dr Lillian Musila, Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Africa, Kenya (USAMRD-A, K), Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Dr Godfrey Bigogo, Centre for Global Health Research (CGHR), Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Kisumu, Kenya, and Dr Jennifer Verani, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Dr Karen Forrest, Dr Davis Nwakanma, Prof Anna Roca, and Saffiatou Darboe, MRC Unit The Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), Serrekunda, the Gambia.
  • Dr Serge Ghislain Djorie, Institut Pasteur (IP), Bangui, Central African Republic; and, Dr Clotaire Donatien Rafaï, Jephté Kaleb, and Giscard Koyaweda, Laboratoire National de Biologie Clinique et de Santé Publique, Bangui, Central African Republic.
  • Dr Kenneth Iregbu, Burden of Antibiotic Resistance in Neonates from Developing Societies (BARNARDS) Study, National Hospital Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.
  • Dr Samuel Akech, Dr Ednah Ooko, James Bukosia, Dr Neema Mturi, Prof Anthony Scott, Prof Philip Bejon, Dr Lynette Isabella Oyier, Salim Mwarumba, Dr Esther Muthumbi, Dr Christina Obiero, Robert Musyimi, Dr Shebe Mohammed, Dr Caroline Ogwang, Christopher Maronga, Dr Ambrose Agweyu, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme (KWTRP), Kilifi, Kenya


  • Prof Paul Turner and Dr Ngoun Chanpheaktra, Cambodia Oxford Medical Research Unit (COMRU) and the Angkor Hospital for Children, respectively, Siem Reap, Cambodia.
  • The Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Vientiane, Laos.
  • Prof Guy Thwaites and Dr Thuy Duong Bich, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit (OUCRU), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
  • Dr Rachel Greer and Prof Yoel Lubell, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit (MORU), Chiang Rai, Thailand.
  • Dr Anand Manoharan, The CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation (CTMRF), Chennai, India.
  • Prof Heiman Wertheim, the ABACUS study, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit (OUCRU), Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • Dr Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Dr Tri Wangrangsimakul, Dr Rachel Greer, Dr Carlo Perrone, Areerat Thaiprakhong, Nidanuch Tasak, Prapass Wannapinij, Chiang Rai Clinical Research Unit - part of the MORU Tropical Health Network, Chiang Rai, Thailand.
  • Dr Kruy Lim and Dr Phe Thong, Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Prof H. Rogier van Doorn and Tien Viet Dung Vu, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit (OUCRU), National Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • Dr Sadia Shakoor, Faisal Riaz Malik, Dr Farah Naz Qamar, and Prof Rumina Hasan, Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Dr Denise Garrett, Prof Steve Luby, Prof Samir Saha, and Prof Jason Andrews, Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP), Sabin Vaccine Institute (SVI), Washington, DC, USA 


  • Dr Ravi Naidu and Dr Tracey E.M.W. Young-Sharma, Colonial War Memorial Hospital, Suva, Fiji; Dr Eric Rafai, Fiji Ministry of Health and Medical Services, Suva, Fiji;
    Prof Anton Y. Peleg, Dr Andrew J. Stewardson, Dr Michael J. Loftus, Prof Allen C. Cheng, and Dr Adam W.J. Jenney, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Dr Teresa M Wozniak and Will Cuningham, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia.


  • Data from the European Surveillance System (TESSy) provided by Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Republic of Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom, and released by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), including the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net), the European Food- and Water-borne Diseases and Zoonoses Network (FWD-Net), the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Network (ESAC-Net), and the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) and participating laboratories, Solna, Sweden.
  • Prof Sarah Walker, Prof Tim Peto, Infections in Oxfordshire Research Database (IORD), NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom.
  • Associate Prof Klara Dokova and Prof Temenuga Stoeva, Faculty of Public Health and Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Varna, Varna, Bulgaria.
  • Prof Timothy Walsh, Burden of Antibiotic Resistance in Neonates from Developing Societies (BARNARDS) Study, CARDIFF University.
  • Prof Jan Jacobs, Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium
  • Dr Ingeborg Lederer, National Reference Laboratory for Shigellosis, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), Graz, Austria

North America

  • Dr Jose Sifuentes-Osornio, Dr Alfredo Ponce-de-Leon, Dr Edgar Ortiz-Brizuela, Dr Antonio Olivas-Martinez, Elia Criollo-Mora, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), Mexico City, Mexico

South America

  • Dr Jose Luis Paredes Sosa, Dr Fiorella Krapp, Dr Coralith Garcia, and Dr Theresa Ochoa, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (UPCH), Lima, Peru.
  • Dr Carlos Castañeda-Orjuela, Colombian National Health Observatory, Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), Bogotá, Colombia