<h4>Background</h4>Monovalent rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline), was introduced in Kenya in July 2014 and is recommended to infants as oral doses at ages 6 and 10 weeks. A multisite study was established in 2 population-based surveillance sites to evaluate vaccine impact on the incidence of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations (RVHs).<h4>Methods</h4>Hospital-based surveillance was conducted from January 2010 to June 2017 for acute diarrhea hospitalizations among children aged <5 years in 2 health facilities in Kenya. A controlled interrupted time-series analysis was undertaken to compare RVH pre- and post-vaccine introduction using rotavirus-negative cases as a control series. The change in incidence post-vaccine introduction was estimated from a negative binomial model that adjusted for secular trend, seasonality, and multiple health worker industrial actions (strikes).<h4>Results</h4>Between January 2010 and June 2017 there were 1513 and 1652 diarrhea hospitalizations in Kilifi and Siaya; among those tested for rotavirus, 28% (315/1142) and 23% (197/877) were positive, respectively. There was a 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8-80%) reduction in RVHs observed in the first year post-vaccine introduction in Kilifi and a 59% (95% CI, 20-79%) reduction in Siaya. In the second year, RVHs decreased further at both sites, 80% (95% CI, 46-93%) reduction in Kilifi and 82% reduction in Siaya (95% CI. 61-92%); this reduction was sustained at both sites into the third year.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A substantial reduction in RVHs and all-cause diarrhea was observed in 2 demographic surveillance sites in Kenya within 3 years of vaccine introduction.
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
2306 - 2313
Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, Kilifi, Kenya.