Inflammation and lung injury in an ovine model of fluid resuscitated endotoxemic shock.
Passmore MR., Byrne L., Obonyo NG., See Hoe LE., Boon A-C., Diab SD., Dunster KR., Bisht K., Tung J-P., Fauzi MH., Narula M., Pedersen SE., Esguerra-Lallen A., Simonova G., Sultana A., Anstey CM., Shekar K., Maitland K., Suen JY., Fraser JF.
BACKGROUND:Sepsis is a multi-system syndrome that remains the leading cause of mortality and critical illness worldwide, with hemodynamic support being one of the cornerstones of the acute management of sepsis. We used an ovine model of endotoxemic shock to determine if 0.9% saline resuscitation contributes to lung inflammation and injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is a common complication of sepsis, and investigated the potential role of matrix metalloproteinases in this process. METHODS:Endotoxemic shock was induced in sheep by administration of an escalating dose of lipopolysaccharide, after which they subsequently received either no fluid bolus resuscitation or a 0.9% saline bolus. Lung tissue, bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) and plasma were analysed by real-time PCR, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunohistochemical staining to assess inflammatory cells, cytokines, hyaluronan and matrix metalloproteinases. RESULTS:Endotoxemia was associated with decreased serum albumin and total protein levels, with activated neutrophils, while the glycocalyx glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan was significantly increased in BAL. Quantitative real-time PCR studies showed higher expression of IL-6 and IL-8 with saline resuscitation but no difference in matrix metalloproteinase expression. BAL and tissue homogenate levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β were elevated. CONCLUSIONS:This data shows that the inflammatory response is enhanced when a host with endotoxemia is resuscitated with saline, with a comparatively higher release of inflammatory cytokines and endothelial/glycocalyx damage, but no change in matrix metalloproteinase levels.