A Roadmap for the Development of Ivermectin as a Complementary Malaria Vector Control Tool.
The Ivermectin Roadmappers None., Billingsley P., Binka F., Chaccour C., Foy B., Gold S., Gonzalez-Silva M., Jacobson J., Jagoe G., Jones C., Kachur P., Kobylinski K., Last A., Lavery JV., Mabey D., Mboera D., Mbogo C., Mendez-Lopez A., Rabinovich NR., Rees S., Richards F., Rist C., Rockwood J., Ruiz-Castillo P., Sattabongkot J., Saute F., Slater H., Steer A., Xia K., Zullinger R.
In the context of stalling progress against malaria, resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides, and residual transmission, mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, an endectocide used for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), has emerged as a promising complementary vector control method. Ivermectin reduces the life span of Anopheles mosquitoes that feed on treated humans and/or livestock, potentially decreasing malaria parasite transmission when administered at the community level. Following the publication by WHO of the preferred product characteristics for endectocides as vector control tools, this roadmap provides a comprehensive view of processes needed to make ivermectin available as a vector control tool by 2024 with a completely novel mechanism of action. The roadmap covers various aspects, which include 1) the definition of optimal dosage/regimens for ivermectin MDA in both humans and livestock, 2) the risk of resistance to the drug and environmental impact, 3) ethical issues, 4) political and community engagement, 5) translation of evidence into policy, and 6) operational aspects of large-scale deployment of the drug, all in the context of a drug given as a prevention tool acting at the community level. The roadmap reflects the insights of a multidisciplinary group of global health experts who worked together to elucidate the path to inclusion of ivermectin in the toolbox against malaria, to address residual transmission, counteract insecticide resistance, and contribute to the end of this deadly disease.