Vi-Vaccinations Induce Heterogeneous Plasma Cell Responses That Associate With Protection From Typhoid Fever.
Cross DL., Verheul MK., Leipold MD., Obermoser G., Jin C., Jones E., Starr JS., Mohorianu I., Blohmke CJ., Maecker HT., Napolitani G., Hill J., Pollard AJ.
Vi-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are efficacious against cases of typhoid fever; however, an absolute correlate of protection is not established. In this study, we investigated the leukocyte response to a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TT) in comparison with a plain polysaccharide vaccine (Vi-PS) in healthy adults subsequently challenged with Salmonella Typhi. Immunological responses and their association with challenge outcome was assessed by mass cytometry and Vi-ELISpot assay. Immunization induced significant expansion of plasma cells in both vaccines with modest T follicular helper cell responses detectable after Vi-TT only. The Vi-specific IgG and IgM B cell response was considerably greater in magnitude in Vi-TT recipients. Intriguingly, a significant increase in a subset of IgA+ plasma cells expressing mucosal migratory markers α4β7 and CCR10 was observed in both vaccine groups, suggesting a gut-tropic, mucosal response is induced by Vi-vaccination. The total plasma cell response was significantly associated with protection against typhoid fever in Vi-TT vaccinees but not Vi-PS. IgA+ plasma cells were not significantly associated with protection for either vaccine, although a trend is seen for Vi-PS. Conversely, the IgA- fraction of the plasma cell response was only associated with protection in Vi-TT. In summary, these data indicate that a phenotypically heterogeneous response including both gut-homing and systemic antibody secreting cells may be critical for protection induced by Vi-TT vaccination.