Clinical characteristics and mortality associated with COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia: A hospital-based retrospective cohort study.
Surendra H., Elyazar IR., Djaafara BA., Ekawati LL., Saraswati K., Adrian V., Widyastuti None., Oktavia D., Salama N., Lina RN., Andrianto A., Lestari KD., Burhan E., Shankar AH., Thwaites G., Baird JK., Hamers RL.
BackgroundData on COVID-19-related mortality and associated factors from low-resource settings are scarce. This study examined clinical characteristics and factors associated with in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients in Jakarta, Indonesia, from March 2 to July 31, 2020.MethodsThis retrospective cohort included all hospitalised patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 in 55 hospitals. We extracted demographic and clinical data, including hospital outcomes (discharge or death). We used logistic regression to examine factors associated with mortality.FindingsOf 4265 patients with a definitive outcome by July 31, 3768 (88%) were discharged and 497 (12%) died. The median age was 46 years (IQR 32-57), 5% were children, and 31% had >1 comorbidity. Age-specific mortalities were 11% (7/61) for <5 years; 4% (1/23) for 5-9; 2% (3/133) for 10-19; 2% (8/638) for 20-29; 3% (26/755) for 30-39; 7% (61/819) for 40-49; 17% (155/941) for 50-59; 22% (132/611) for 60-69; and 34% (96/284) for ≥70. Risk of death was associated with higher age, male sex; pre-existing hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease; clinical diagnosis of pneumonia; multiple (>3) symptoms; immediate ICU admission, or intubation. Across all ages, risk of death was higher for patients with >1 comorbidity compared to those without; notably the risk was six-fold increased among patients <50 years (adjusted odds ratio 5.87, 95%CI 3.28-10.52; 27% vs 3% mortality).InterpretationOverall in-hospital mortality was lower than reported in high-income countries, probably due to younger age distribution and fewer comorbidities. Deaths occurred across all ages, with >10% mortality among children <5 years and adults >50 years.