Malaria epidemiology and anti-malarial drug efficacy in Guinea: a review of clinical and molecular studies.
Cherif MS., Dahal P., Beavogui AH., Delamou A., Lama EK., Camara A., Diallo MP.
Malaria is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Guinea. The entire country is considered at risk of the disease. Transmission occurs all year round with peaks occurring from July through October with Plasmodium falciparum as the primary parasite species. Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug against uncomplicated P. falciparum in Guinea until 2005, prior to the adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). In this review, data on therapeutic efficacy of CQ and artemisinin-based combinations reported in published literature is summarized. Against CQ, a failure rate of 27% (12/44) was reported in a study in 1992; a median failure rate of 15.6% [range: 7.7-28.3; 8 studies] was observed during 1996-2001, and 81% (17/21) of the patients failed to clear parasitaemia in a study conducted in 2007. For artemisinin-based combinations, three published studies were identified (1495 patients; 2004-2016); all three studies demonstrated day 28 polymerase chain reaction corrected efficacy > 95%. One study characterized kelch-13 mutations (389 tested; samples collected in 2016) with no evidence of mutations currently known to be associated with artemisinin resistance. The impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and widespread usage of counterfeit medicines are immediate challenges to malaria control activities in Guinea.