Molecular chlamydia and gonorrhoea point of care tests implemented into routine practice: Systematic review and value proposition development
Fuller SS., Clarke E., Harding-Esch EM.
Background Sexually Transmitted Infections, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), continue to be a global health problem. Increased access to point-of-care-tests (POCTs) could help detect infection and lead to appropriate management of cases and contacts, reducing transmission and development of reproductive health sequelae. Yet diagnostics with good clinical effectiveness evidence can fail to be implemented into routine care. Here we assess values beyond clinical effectiveness for molecular CT/NG POCTs implemented across diverse routine practice settings. Methods We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed primary research and conference abstract publications in Medline and Embase reporting on molecular CT/NG POCT implementation in routine clinical practice until 16th February 2021. Results were extracted into EndNote software and initially screened by title and abstract by one author according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles that met the criteria, or were unclear, were included for full-text assessment by all authors. Results were synthesised to assess the tests against guidance criteria and develop a CT/NG POCT value proposition for multiple stakeholders and settings. Findings The systematic review search returned 440 articles; 28 were included overall. The Cepheid CT/NG GeneXpert was the only molecular CT/NG POCT implemented and evaluated in routine practice. It did not fulfil all test guidance criteria, however, studies of test implementation showed multiple values for test use across various healthcare settings and locations. Our value proposition highlights that the majority of values are setting-specific. Sexual health services and outreach services have the least overlap, with General Practice and other non-sexual health specialist services serving as a “bridge” between the two. Conclusions Those wishing to improve CT/NG diagnosis should be supported to identify the values most relevant to their settings and context, and prioritise implementation of tests that are most closely aligned with those values.