Epidemiological impact and cost-effectiveness analysis of COVID-19 vaccination in Kenya.
Orangi S., Ojal J., Brand SP., Orlendo C., Kairu A., Aziza R., Ogero M., Agweyu A., Warimwe GM., Uyoga S., Otieno E., Ochola-Oyier LI., Agoti CN., Kasera K., Amoth P., Mwangangi M., Aman R., Ng'ang'a W., Adetifa IM., Scott JAG., Bejon P., Keeling MJ., Flasche S., Nokes DJ., Barasa E.
BackgroundA few studies have assessed the epidemiological impact and the cost-effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in settings where most of the population had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection.MethodsWe conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of COVID-19 vaccine in Kenya from a societal perspective over a 1.5-year time frame. An age-structured transmission model assumed at least 80% of the population to have prior natural immunity when an immune escape variant was introduced. We examine the effect of slow (18 months) or rapid (6 months) vaccine roll-out with vaccine coverage of 30%, 50% or 70% of the adult (>18 years) population prioritising roll-out in those over 50-years (80% uptake in all scenarios). Cost data were obtained from primary analyses. We assumed vaccine procurement at US$7 per dose and vaccine delivery costs of US$3.90-US$6.11 per dose. The cost-effectiveness threshold was US$919.11.FindingsSlow roll-out at 30% coverage largely targets those over 50 years and resulted in 54% fewer deaths (8132 (7914-8373)) than no vaccination and was cost saving (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, ICER=US$-1343 (US$-1345 to US$-1341) per disability-adjusted life-year, DALY averted). Increasing coverage to 50% and 70%, further reduced deaths by 12% (810 (757-872) and 5% (282 (251-317) but was not cost-effective, using Kenya's cost-effectiveness threshold (US$919.11). Rapid roll-out with 30% coverage averted 63% more deaths and was more cost-saving (ICER=US$-1607 (US$-1609 to US$-1604) per DALY averted) compared with slow roll-out at the same coverage level, but 50% and 70% coverage scenarios were not cost-effective.InterpretationWith prior exposure partially protecting much of the Kenyan population, vaccination of young adults may no longer be cost-effective.