Clinical Presentation and Response to Therapy in Children with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
Suprien C., Rocha PN., Teixeira M., Carvalho LP., Guimarães LH., Bonvoisin T., Machado PRL., Carvalho EM.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis occurs predominantly in adult males. Herein, we compare the clinical presentation and the response to antimony therapy of CL in children versus adults. Participants included 571 patients with CL; of these, 129 were children (age ≤ 12 years). Cure was defined as the complete healing of ulcer in the absence of raised borders at day 90 after initiation of therapy. Failure was defined by the presence of an active ulcer or a scar with elevated borders at day 90. In comparison with adults, children had shorter duration of illness, more lesions in the head, and smaller ulcers. Risk factors for therapeutic failure were younger age, shorter duration of disease, higher number of lesions, and larger size of the biggest ulcer. When age was categorized in ≤ 12-year-olds (children versus adults), it predicted therapeutic failure with statistical significance at day 60 but not at day 90. In conclusion, our data indicate that there are significant differences in the clinical presentation of CL between children and adults. Physicians caring for children with CL should be aware that lesions may take longer to heal and remain alert for the possibility of higher odds of therapeutic failure in this group.