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Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent nasopharyngeal colonization with vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, leading to reduced transmission of pneumococci and stronger population-level impact of PCVs. In 2017 we conducted a cross-sectional pneumococcal carriage study in Indonesia among children aged <5 years before 13-valent PCV (PCV13) introduction. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected during visits to community integrated health service posts at one peri-urban and one rural study site. Specimens were analyzed by culture, and isolates were serotyped using sequential multiplex polymerase chain and Quellung reaction. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by broth microdilution method. We enrolled 1,007 children in Gunungkidul District, Yogyakarta (peri-urban) and 815 in Southwest Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara (rural). Pneumococcal carriage prevalence was 30.9% in Gunungkidul and 87.6% in Southwest Sumba (combined: 56.3%). PCV13 serotypes (VT) carriage was 15.0% in Gunungkidul and 52.6% in Southwest Sumba (combined: 31.8%). Among pneumococcal isolates identified, the most common VT were 6B (16.4%), 19F (15.8%), and 3 (4.6%) in Gunungkidul (N = 323) and 6B (17.6%), 19F (11.0%), and 23F (9.3%) in Southwest Sumba (N = 784). Factors associated with pneumococcal carriage were age (1-2 years adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5; 3-4 years aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1; reference <1 year), other children <5 years old in the household (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0), and presence of ≥1 respiratory illness symptom (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.2). Overall, 61.5% of the pneumococcal isolates were non-susceptible to ≥1 antibiotic class and 13.2% were multi-drug non-susceptible (MDNS) (non-susceptible to ≥3 classes of antibiotics). Among 602 VT isolates, 73.9% were non-susceptible and 19.9% were MDNS. These findings are critical to establish a pre-PCV13 carriage prevalence and demonstrate the complexity in evaluating the impact of PCV13 introduction in Indonesia given the wide variability in the carriage prevalence as shown by the two study sites.

Original publication





PLoS One

Publication Date





Child, Humans, Infant, Child, Preschool, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pneumococcal Infections, Vaccines, Conjugate, Cross-Sectional Studies, Indonesia, Carrier State, Serogroup, Pneumococcal Vaccines, Nasopharynx, Anti-Bacterial Agents