Immunoproteomic Analysis of Antibody in Lymphocyte Supernatant in Patients with Typhoid Fever in Bangladesh
Charles RC., Liang L., Khanam F., Sayeed MA., Hung C., Leung DT., Baker S., Ludwig A., Harris JB., LaRocque RC., Calderwood SB., Qadri F., Felgner PL., Ryan ET.
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>We have previously shown that an assay based on detection of anti-<jats:named-content content-type="genus-species">Salmonella enterica</jats:named-content>serotype Typhi antibodies in supernatant of lymphocytes harvested from patients presenting with typhoid fever (antibody in lymphocyte supernatant [ALS] assay) can identify 100% of patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Bangladesh. In order to define immunodominant proteins within the<jats:italic>S</jats:italic>. Typhi membrane preparation used as antigen in these prior studies and to identify potential biomarkers unique to<jats:italic>S</jats:italic>. Typhi bacteremic patients, we probed microarrays containing 2,724<jats:italic>S</jats:italic>. Typhi proteins with ALS collected at the time of clinical presentation from 10 Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever. We identified 62 immunoreactive antigens when evaluating both the IgG and IgA responses. Immune responses to 10 of these antigens discriminated between individuals with acute typhoid infection and healthy control individuals from areas where typhoid infection is endemic, as well as Bangladeshi patients presenting with fever who were subsequently confirmed to have a nontyphoid illness. Using an ALS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format and purified antigen, we then confirmed that immune responses against the antigen with the highest immunoreactivity (hemolysin E [HlyE]) correctly identified individuals with acute typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. These observations suggest that purified antigens could be used with ALS and corresponding acute-phase activated B lymphocytes in diagnostic platforms to identify acutely infected patients, even in areas where enteric fever is endemic.</jats:p>