Do you want to know more about Open Access? Find out about Act on Acceptance & ORCID from an expert? Book a place for our session on Tuesday 23rd August, 2-3pm in Room B at the WTCHG. Juliet Ralph, the Open Access Subject librarian, will be available for your toughest questions.
Posted 27/05/2022. This randomised controlled trial by Louise Thwaites and colleagues examined two different treatments for adults with tetanus. The first was spinal (intrathecal) injection of antitoxin compared to a sham (dummy) procedure (in addition to normal intramuscular injection) and showed no overall benefit. The second, comparing two types of intramuscular antitoxin (equine and human) also showed no difference between treatments
Posted 24/05/2022. Drug-resistant malaria is now a critical public health emergency on a global scale. The artemisinin resistance confirmed recently in Rwanda and Uganda is likely just the ‘tip of the spear’, with its spread likely to soon occur widely across endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Philippe Guerin and colleagues make five feasible recommendations, based on learnings from the COVID-19 experience on collecting, sharing and disseminating these critical data efficiently.
Posted 17/05/2022. In this study, leveraging a Kenyan Clinical Information Network, Timothy Tuti, Mike English and colleagues set out to evaluate at the clinical team level, if and how a comprehensive healthcare-specific feedback theory used to design and implement pharmacists-championed feedback strategies could help improve medication prescribing accuracy during inpatient neonatal care.
Posted 11/05/2022. Yingxi Zhao and colleagues used data from a national health facility assessment to understand the capacity of Kenya internship hospital to provide internship training for medical doctors. They highlight the major gaps in staffing, equipment and service availability in those hospitals and call for more stringent and regular review and re-accreditation of internship hospitals to provide appropriate and well-resourced training.
Posted 13/05/2022. “Under the Mask” is a 75-min feature film that follows the lives of patients with TB who live on the Thai-Myanmar border. Phaik Yeong Cheah, Michele Vincenti Delmas and colleagues explains the genesis and development of the film, and how it has been used to engage communities at risk of TB.
Posted 17/05/2022. In this study, Margaret Nampijja, Agnes Mutua, Sarah Atkinson and colleagues found that lower maternal and infant hemoglobin levels were associated with reduced psychomotor scores at 15 months, and lower infant hemoglobin levels were associated with reduced language scores. These findings emphasize the importance of managing maternal and child anemia.
Postes 10/05/2022. In this study, Reagan Mogire and colleagues found that vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 98% increased risk of iron deficiency in African children and also influenced hepcidin and other markers of iron status. Both nutrients should be considered in strategies to manage their deficiencies in Africa.
Posted 06/05/2022. Animal studies suggest an important role of iron in neurodevelopment. In this systematic review, Agnes Mutua, Sarah Atkinson and colleagues found limited evidence for the effects of iron supplementation on neurodevelopment in African children despite the high burden of iron deficiency in this population. Further well-conducted studies are needed.
Posted 03/05/2022. We’ve all been there! Waiting forever for reviewers comments after submission our paper to a journal. The system is not working. Should we pay reviewers to review a paper? Will it make a difference? Phaik Yeong Cheah and Jan Piasecki give some arguments why we should. What are your thoughts?
Posted 20/04/2022. Although seasonality in tuberculosis is seen on all continents, explanations have remained elusive. In a 10-year population study of TB transmission in Birmingham, UK, Timothy Walker and colleagues see seasonality only among patients linked by recent transmission, with diagnoses peaking in spring time. TB’s incubation period may thus be even shorter than hitherto understood.
Posted 19/04/2022. Jennifer Van Nuil and colleagues used a community-based participatory research approach to engage in dialogues with underserved groups at risk for hepatitis C in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. We present findings from stakeholder mapping meetings held with representatives from local organizations, including the challenges and dynamics of the communities.
Posted 12/04/2022. Evidence on the costs of delivering COVID-19 vaccines are useful inputs in planning for resource mobilization, and can inform vaccine priority setting decisions. Stacey Orangi, Edwine Barasa and colleagues present the unit costs of procuring and delivering the COVID-19 vaccine in Kenya across various vaccination strategies. These cost estimates can be used to inform local policy and may further inform parameters used in cost-effectiveness models.
Posted 08/04/2022. Kwashiorkor, a type of severe malnutrition associated with oedema, has been known for centuries but its mechanism remains elusive. This research by Jay Berkley and colleagues confirmed that low plasma albumin levels are necessary but not sufficient for oedema formation. Our findings suggest that lymphatic drainage may be impaired, which is a new discovery.
Posted 29/03/2022. In regions with low Covid-19 vaccine coverage, health systems remain vulnerable to surges in infections. Arjun Chandna and colleagues developed three clinical prediction models to help identify patients safe for community-based management. Each model contains three simple clinical parameters (age, sex, SpO2) and one point-of-care biomarker, and could help protect resource-limited health systems.
Posted 22/02/2022. In many sub-Saharan African countries, including Kenya, the use of mortality and morbidity audits in maternal and perinatal/neonatal care as an avenue for learning and improving care delivery is sub-optimal due to structural, organizational, and human barriers. In this exploratory qualitative study, Joyline Jepkosgei and colleagues examined process-related factors that generally influence M&M audits including health workers’ interactions and their experiences, institutional cultures, and broader health system contextual influences, which remain inadequately explored.
Posted 25/03/2022. Alun Davies and colleagues used Participatory Video (PV) to explore how engagement with researchers influenced Kenyan school students’ perceptions of research and aspirations. PV highlighted the complex context in which engagement is situated where students’ time and attention is competed for against curricular, extracurricular, and social-cultural factors. We emphasise the importance of ensuring that engagement benefits students.
Posted 22/03/2022. The first randomised trial of artemether-lumefantrine plus amodiaquine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in areas with a high prevalence of artemisinin resistance shows it is a well-tolerated, effective treatment for multidrug-resistant parasites. Coordinated by Tom Peto, James Callery and Rupam Tripura, the triple therapy provides an alternative first-line treatment in Southeast Asia and elsewhere, with an expected longer therapeutic lifetime than current artemisinin combination therapies.
Posted 23/03/2022. In this review, Piero Olliaro and colleague Els Torreele analyse the successes and failures with coronavirus disease 2019 and Ebola virus disease in shaping health systems and research for infectious disease epidemics. They highlight that epidemic preparedness means also tackling a series of ongoing outbreaks and make the case for a coordinated, public health-driven, portfolio approach.
Posted 18/03/2022. Steven Wambua and colleagues analysed monthly reports on utilization of outpatient and immunization services between Jan-2018 and Mar-2021 by all health facilities in Kenya to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on the utilization of the health services. Data was obtained from the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS 2). We observed varied effects of the pandemic, with significant drops in attendance for most outpatient services while immunisation services remained unaffected.
Posted 15/03/2022. Bipin Adhikari reviews a book titled ‘Phantom Plague: How Tuberculosis Shaped History’ by Vidya Krishnan--a prominent medical science reporter. The book is a compelling journey into a history of medicine, current development of Tuberculosis epidemiology and treatment, and Global Health and is an essential read in Global Health.
Two RECOVERY Trial team members have been recognised in the New Year Honours list 2022. RECOVERY Trial coordinator, Professor Richard Haynes, has been appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) for services to Global Health, and Senior Clinical Trial Manager, Lucy Fletcher, has been appointed MBE for services to Clinical Trials. The New Year Honours list recognises outstanding achievements by a wide range of extraordinary people from across the United Kingdom. People are awarded honours for achievements in their field of work (including health, education, science and technology), as well as for making a difference to their community.
The fast spread of the highly infectious Delta variant underscores the need for faster identification of COVID-19 mutations. Uniting governments and medical communities in this challenge, the University of Oxford and Oracle’s Global Pathogen Analysis System (GPAS) is now being used by organizations on nearly every continent. Institutions using the platform include OUCRU in Vietnam and institutions in Canada, Chile, Australia and the UK. GPAS is also now part of the Public Health England New Variant Assessment Platform.
The University of Oxford remains top of the table in latest Times Higher Education World University Rankings. In a year dominated by the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, the rankings reflect the vital role of universities in understanding and managing the crisis as a number of institutions around the world saw significant boosts in their citation scores from Covid-19 focused research.
Nguyen Lam Vuong, Sophie Yacoub & colleagues have identified a combination of biological markers in patients with dengue that could predict whether they go on to develop moderate to severe disease. Biomarkers are used to identify the state or risk of a disease in patients; these findings could aid the development of biomarker panels for clinical use and help improve triage and risk prediction in patients with dengue.
The Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY) trial has demonstrated that the investigational antibody combination developed by Regeneron reduces the risk of death when given to patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19 who have not mounted a natural antibody response of their own.
The RECOVERY trial was established as a randomised clinical trial to test a range of potential treatments for patients hospitalised with COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of blood clots forming in their blood vessels, particularly in the lungs. Between November 2020 and March 2021, the RECOVERY trial included nearly 15,000 patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in an assessment of the effects of aspirin, which is widely used to reduce blood clotting in other diseases. There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint of 28-day mortality