Posted 02/02/2021. Indiscriminate antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal production is a driver of antimicrobial resistance globally. In this trial, Juan Carrique-Mas and colleague provided regular veterinary advice to chicken farmers in Vietnam aiming to reducing AMU. AMU was quantitatively reduced by 66% and flock mortality by 40%. This study demonstrates that reductions in AMU without compromising health and productivity can be achieved in LMICs.
Posted 22/01/2021. Raph Hamers and colleagues conducted a multi-country prospective study of Africans with HIV-1 on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Plasma concentrations of sCD14 and CRP predicted subsequent poor CD4+ T-cell recovery, and CXCL10 and sCD163 predicted viral rebound. Further research is needed to increase our understanding of and to explore the potential for adjunctive therapeutic interventions targeting these pathways.
Posted 19/01/2021. Tan Le Van and colleagues show that metagenomics could detect enteroviruses (n=23), hepatitis B virus (3), HIV (2), molluscum contagiosum virus (1) and germycircularvirus (1) in 14.7% of 204 cerebrospinal fluid from Vietnamese patients presenting with central nervous system infections of unknown origin. It remains a challenge to identify a plausible cause in patients with brain infections.
Posted 12/01/2021. Azithromycin is effectively the last remaining oral antimicrobial to treat typhoid fever and is widely used for empirical therapy in South Asia. Although azithromycin resistance in Salmonella Typhi has rarely been reported, Abhilasha Karkey and colleagues show that an increasing reliance on this drug has led to the emergence of azithromycin resistant S. Typhi in the region.
Posted 20/11/2020. Providing compensation for participants in clinical research is well established but defining compensation in low-resource settings is challenging due to ethical concerns and the lack of appropriate frameworks. Evelyne Kestelyn and colleagues at OUCRU Vietnam developed a compensation and reimbursement framework, providing a consistent, fair and transparent decision-making process that will be implemented across all future clinical research.
Posted 17/11/20. Rogier van Doorn and colleagues show that antibiotics were prescribed to almost all 500 children with mild respiratory infection presenting to an outpatient clinic. They assessed prior antibiotic use by questionnaire and urine testing (HPLC), and reported overuse and overprescription of antibiotics when most respiratory infections are caused by viruses, and selection of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in gutflora with transmission potential.
Posted 20/10/2020. Buddha Basnyat and colleagues describe findings from NUFIT, the Nepal Undifferentiated Febrile Illness Trial, a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. The trial revealed that 7 days of sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim) is inferior to azithromycin in the treatment of undifferentiated febrile illness (fever without a focus) and enteric fever in Nepal and the wider region in South Asia.
Posted 11/09/2020. Nineteen different enterovirus serotypes were detected in 1196 Vietnamese children presenting with hand foot and mouth disease during 2015-2018. Le Van Tan and colleagues show that EV-A71 was the major cause, especially in those with severe disease, followed by CV-A6, CV-A10 and CV-A16. Multivalent vaccines are urgently needed to control hand foot and mouth disease.
Posted 19/06/2018. Many people with pre-existing heart problems (including heart attack, pacemaker implantation, arrhythmia), high blood pressure and even past history of a stroke seek advice regarding high altitude travel ( > 2500m) for recreation, meetings or pilgrimages. Dr Buddha Basnyat and colleagues succinctly try to address these conditions at altitude and make reasonable recommendations in the face of limited data.
Posted 17/12/2019. Typhoid fever is rampant in South Asia. This new typhoid vaccine (studied in Kathmandu, Nepal, by Buddha Basnyat and colleagues) appears to be very effective in the prevention of typhoid. Administration of the new vaccine, especially in children, will revolutionize the prevention of this disease. And, crucially, help fight typhoid treatment resistance, a burgeoning problem.
Posted 18/05/2020. The etiology of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), a disease sometimes seen in sojourners to high altitude, is lack of adequate oxygen and not an inflammation provoked by an infectious agent like the novel coronavirus. Except for supplemental oxygen, Buddha Basnyat and colleagues strongly caution against managing COVID-19 lung injury with treatments that are used for HAPE.
Posted 02/04/2019: Underdiagnosed in South Asia, melioidosis is caused by a bacterium called Burkholderia pseudomallei which is often referred to as a remarkable imitator. Pulmonary involvement including infections mimicking tuberculosis is a common form of presentation. In this case report, Buddha Basnyat and colleagues show that if a South Asian patient does not respond to anti tuberculosis treatment, melioidosis should be considered.
Posted 02/10/2018. Rising prevalence of HIV drug resistance in low and middle-income countries poses a growing threat to the HIV response. To curb resistance, enhanced strategies are needed that improve quality of ART care and treatment. Raph Hamers reviews contemporary data and highlights the potential impact and resistance risks of novel ART strategies and knowledge gaps.
Posted 07/04/2017. Collaboration between photographer Pearl Gan and Professor Kevin Baird from our EOCRU unit in Jakarta, Indonesia, this photographic project aims to raise public awareness of malaria as a serious health problem for the region by telling the human story of Asia’s invisible malaria burden.
Posted 28/05/2019. Kevin Baird calls attention to the importance of local expertise in anopheline mosquito ecology as an essential weapon in striving to eliminate malaria. Slight but very specific modifications to environments that disfavour those mosquitoes achieved very significant gains before the advent of DDT insecticide and synthetic antimalarial commodities in the middle of the 20th century. Loss of those commodities, and a lack of alternative strategies, led to the great malaria resurgence of the latter 20th century.
Posted 06/08/2020. Cholesterol is required for efficient dengue virus (DENV) replication, however statin treatment did not show efficacy against dengue in clinical trials, and underscored the need for a more detailed understanding of the interaction between DENV and cellular cholesterol. In this paper, in collaboration with DUKE-NUS, Sophie Yacoub and colleagues demonstrate the pivotal role of PCSK9 in DENV infections.
Posted 24/07/2020. A team from OUCRU led by Le Van Tan, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Vietnam, and the Target Discovery Institute at the University of Oxford showed that lipocalin 2 is a sensitive and specific biomarker for discriminating bacterial meningitis from a broad spectrum of other brain infections, and outperforms routine CSF markers such as leukocytes, glucose, protein and lactate.
Posted 05/06/2020. Tan Le Van and colleagues showed that metagenomics can accurately detect a wide range of neurotropic viruses, especially vaccine-preventable-disease causing viruses such as mumps, in CSF of 66 consecutively treated adults with meningoencephalitis. Prospective study is needed to demonstrate the benefit metagenomics may add to the management of devastating diseases such as meningoencephalitis.
Posted 09/06/2020. Dr Le Van Tan and colleagues from OUCRU, Vietnam, demonstrate that 43% of quarantined people who were RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 were asymptomatic, but potentially contagious. The results emphasize the importance of contact tracing, airport quarantine and RT-PCR screening for SARS-CoV-2 among isolated people in controlling the ongoing pandemic.
Posted 15/05/2020. Tuberculous meningitis is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Here Joseph Donovan and colleagues review tuberculous meningitis research during the last 2 years, focusing on that considered to have a major impact in advancing understanding, diagnosis, treatment of this disease in children and adults
KWTRP initial community and public engagement strategy was developed in 2005 with three goals: build understanding and trust between researchers and communities, enhance ethical conduct of research, and disseminate research findings to promote uptake into policy. Our programme has since developed and now includes engagement with media, radio programme, media engagement workshops, various meetings and forums, and a fully-fledged school engagement programme that was awarded the 2019 Oxford VC Public Engagement with Research Award.
Ethox programme REACH (Resilience, Empowerment and Advocacy in Women's and Children's Health Research) posted a visual research gallery as a Public Engagement project. Six galleries of photos by SMRU's Suphak Nosten depict aspects of migrant workers' daily lives: the Thai-Myanmar border; work; cultural and spiritual values; the often-difficult journeys seeking healthcare; striving for better; and dedicated frontline health workers. Richly coloured, sometimes personal, Suphak’s photography is deeply empathetic and memorable.
The University of Oxford, MORU, the University of Cape Town, the Thai Ministry of Public Health, and UNICEF Thailand worked together to promote lifelong health and well-being, and prevent violence against children. Led by Amalee McCoy from MORU Department of Bioethics & Engagement, this project involved the cultural adaptation and testing of an evidence-based parenting intervention for low-income families with children aged 2-9 living in Udon Thani, Thailand.
This community drama programme was designed by the OUCRU Public and Community Engagement group to raise awareness about the importance of vaccinations in remote areas of Binh Phuoc province. The majority of the population are ethnic minority groups with limited access to health promotion. Without even radio as a method of dissemination, home visits by local healthcare workers is the main way to encourage the community to get vaccinated. Scripted very closely to the context of everyday lives, this play helps understand more about vaccinations and explains how to access the National Expanded Programme on Immunization.
When we are ill, we expect our medicines to work as intended. But what if they do not contain the ingredients listed on the packaging? The Pharmacide Arts exhibition “What’s in your medicines?” showcases the original artwork of 11 South East Asian artists. The exhibition is open to the public from 26th-28th January 2020 at the Mandarin Hotel, Bangkok, from 10 am – 5 pm.
When we are ill, we trust that the medicines that we take will make us feel and be better. But what if our pills do not contain the ingredients listed on the packaging? The art exhibition ‘What’s in your medicines?’ explores how substandard and falsified (‘fake’) medicines can affect our health, by showcasing the striking and original artwork of 12 South East Asian artists.