On 4 June 2020, after a week of increasing scientific concern and scrutiny, first The Lancet, then the New England Journal of Medicine, retracted studies that were based on inaccessible data. The studies have been extremely damaging to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine COVID-19 clinical trials around the globe. MORU researchers played a key role in bringing this scandal to light, whose consequences continue to play out.
Posted 12/03/2021. Henry Surendra, Raph Hamers and colleagues report a large retrospective study of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia. In-hospital mortality was lower than reported in high-income countries, likely explained by the younger population, fewer comorbidities and less severe disease. Nonetheless, this study affirmed the vulnerability of elderly and comorbid patients as well as children under 5 years in LMICs
Posted 22/01/2021. Raph Hamers and colleagues conducted a multi-country prospective study of Africans with HIV-1 on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Plasma concentrations of sCD14 and CRP predicted subsequent poor CD4+ T-cell recovery, and CXCL10 and sCD163 predicted viral rebound. Further research is needed to increase our understanding of and to explore the potential for adjunctive therapeutic interventions targeting these pathways.
Posted 02/10/2018. Rising prevalence of HIV drug resistance in low and middle-income countries poses a growing threat to the HIV response. To curb resistance, enhanced strategies are needed that improve quality of ART care and treatment. Raph Hamers reviews contemporary data and highlights the potential impact and resistance risks of novel ART strategies and knowledge gaps.
Posted 07/04/2017. Collaboration between photographer Pearl Gan and Professor Kevin Baird from our EOCRU unit in Jakarta, Indonesia, this photographic project aims to raise public awareness of malaria as a serious health problem for the region by telling the human story of Asia’s invisible malaria burden.
Posted 28/05/2019. Kevin Baird calls attention to the importance of local expertise in anopheline mosquito ecology as an essential weapon in striving to eliminate malaria. Slight but very specific modifications to environments that disfavour those mosquitoes achieved very significant gains before the advent of DDT insecticide and synthetic antimalarial commodities in the middle of the 20th century. Loss of those commodities, and a lack of alternative strategies, led to the great malaria resurgence of the latter 20th century.
Every year, over a million children fall ill with tuberculosis (TB) globally, and about a quarter die from this potentially preventable and curable disease. The main challenge remains the diagnosis of TB, especially in resource-constrained settings. We currently need to collect mucus from the lungs or liquid contents of the stomach, which must be collected in a hospital. Different ways to diagnosis TB in children are urgently needed, especially for those infected with HIV. An international collaboration is now conducting a large diagnostic study in Uganda to fill this gap. The study aims to detect TB bacteria in body fluids such as blood, urine, stool and saliva that are easier to collect.
The Medicine Quality Research Group has published a new Medical Product Quality Report focussing on increasing issues around substandard and falsified (SF) COVID-19 vaccines. With the implementation of the key innovations of COVID-19 vaccines, there have been growing numbers of reports of SF vaccines in the public domain. Given the vital role they will play in ending the pandemic and protecting the global population but severe issues with equitable access, SF vaccines are highly likely to be a growing problem.
The Indonesian government policy to exclude the elderly in the first phase of the COVID-19 vaccination program could hinder the vaccine’s impact in lowering mortality rates. COVID-19 mortality rates in Indonesia, the highest in Southeast Asia, are dominated by those in the 60 years and above age bracket. In this article published in The Conversation, Kartika Saraswati and fellow DPhil students elaborate how, by prioritising vaccination for elderly, Indonesia may optimally reduce the hospital burden and COVID-19 deaths amidst a limited vaccine supply during the first vaccination phase.
A study to explore the variations of how microscopy methods are reported in published malaria studies has recommended standardised procedures should be implemented for methodological consistency and comparability of clinical trial outcomes.
The first patients are being vaccinated as part of the UK’s rollout of the Oxford / AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, at the Oxford University NHS Hospitals Trust. The Oxford AstraZeneca vaccinations will be delivered at a small number of hospitals for the first few days for surveillance purposes, as is standard practice, before the bulk of supplies are sent to hundreds of GP-led services later in the week.
Blog by Rima Shretta. Preliminary efficacy results from three vaccine candidates currently in Phase 3 trials have shown an efficacy of more than 90% against the development of symptomatic COVID-19. While these results are promising, all vaccines are in relatively early stages of testing. A comprehensive and transparent roadmap is urgently needed, to determine how limited doses of the first vaccines to be licensed will be distributed, together with which groups will initially be prioritized.