Oxford is world-famous for research excellence and home to some of the most talented people from across the globe. To showcase our global research, the University launched a Global Research Map, highlighting areas of research we are conducting overseas.
Posted 08/06/2021. Alice Kamau and colleagues show that passively collected routine health facility data does offer opportunities to detect malaria ‘hotstops’ down to the village level, at an affordable cost. It will be important, however, to refine the current surveillance tools such that they have the potential of collecting information at sufficiently precise scale.
Posted 28/05/2021. Reagan Mogire, Sarah Atkinson and colleagues show that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) is low (7.8%) in African children, although 37.1% have insufficient levels (50–75 nmol/L). Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency include high latitude, older age, winter and rainy seasons, Gc2 vitamin D binding protein genotype and malaria.
Posted 12/05/2021. Jacob Kazungu, Edwine Barasa and colleagues examined the level and inequality in health insurance coverage in 36 sub-Saharan African countries. They found that insurance coverage in sub-Saharan Africa is both low and pro-rich; only 8 of the 36 countries examined had a mean level of insurance coverage of above 10%.
Posted 28/04/2021. While Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS) involving verbal autopsy provide essential data on deaths, births and other health-related events in LMICs where alternative sources are limited, Vicki Marsh and colleagues argue that current regulatory frameworks do not sufficiently recognise their nature as a form of non-traditional epidemiological research. Ethical challenges include risks of uncompensated burdens that alternative regulatory approaches may more successfully identify.
Posted 23/04/2021. COVID-19 case management is one of the key interventions in country responses to the pandemic. Angela Kairu, Edwine Barasa and colleagues estimate the unit costs for COVID-19 case management in Kenya useful in informing policy decisions around resource allocation, planning and budgeting, and development of appropriate healthcare purchasing arrangements. The findings illustrate that COVID-19 case management costs are substantial, ranging between two and four times the average claims value reported by Kenya’s public health insurer.
Posted 31/03/2021. Patient safety is a key goal of WHO but identifying harms and developing strategies to deliver safe care has been given little attention. Mike English and colleague describe a ‘portfolio’ approach to safety improvement in four broad categories: prioritising critical processes, improving the organisation of care, control of risks and enhancing responses to hazardous situations that we believe is relevant to low resource settings. We focus attention on the possible roles of practitioner groups and professional associations as key to advancing patient safety through collaboration and skill development in this field
Posted 26/02/2021. Malaria and iron deficiency are common in Africa and malaria may cause iron deficiency through a hepcidin-mediated block in iron absorption. Using sickle cell trait to proxy malaria exposure, John Muriuki, Sarah Atkinson and colleagues found that an intervention that halves malaria incidence would also reduce iron deficiency by approximately 50% in African children.
Posted 22/02/2021. Paper continues to be an important medium for recording inpatient care in low‐ and middle‐income countries. Naomi Muinga and colleagues synthesise evidence on how paper‐based nursing records have been developed within inpatient settings to support documentation of nursing care, and that a human‐centred design approach might better meet users' needs
Posted 12/02/2021. The majority of digital health projects have failed to translate into scaled, routine services, leaving many health leaders cautious and uncertain of how to proceed. Chris Paton and colleagues identify factors that can influence successful and sustainable integration of digital health within local health systems in low resource settings.
Posted 08/01/2021. Patient safety is much less well studied in low-resource settings than in higher income settings. Mike English and colleagues suggest how concepts being employed to advance patient safety thinking in higher income settings could be usefully applied by practitioners in low-resource settings. The ability to diagnose system weaknesses should become a core skill for those leading teams, wards, departments or facilities in low-resource settings
Posted 07/07/2020. In a country with 25 million newborns, children and adolescents, how many paediatricians are there and where are they? This paper by Mike English and colleagues seeks to start a debate on how to deliver paediatric services in LMIC in the future.
Posted 10/01/2020. Our ethnography aimed to describe Nairobi’s inpatient newborn wards and the busy lives of the nurses who work there. They work long hours with little supervision in ill-designed wards, staffed by far too few nurses given the pressing need. Under these difficult conditions, the collective model of nursing that develops reduces nurses’ exposure to stress and anxiety. Jacob McKnight and colleagues describe how these coping methods have implications for the quality of care and limit the potential for a patient-centred approach.
Posted 26/01/2021. Appropriate and well-resourced medical internship training is important to ensure psychological health and well-being of doctors in training and also to recruit and retain these doctors. Yingxi Zhao and colleagues identified and described a large number of tools designed for measuring medical internship experience, to help medical educators and human resource managers make an evidence-based decision on designing surveys to understand interns’ experience of training.
Posted 03/09/2020. Cian Wade, Mike English and colleagues brought together a large body of evidence to inform recommendations for Kenya on neonatal analgesic guidelines for routine procedures. They describe the process by which a group of local experts translated systematic review and meta-analysis findings into context-specific clinical guidelines. The work emphasises the value of breastfeeding or breast milk as an important and feasible therapeutic strategy for alleviating neonatal pain.
Posted 05/02/2021. Measles immunity gaps have widened following disruptions of routine immunisation and supplementary activities due to COVID-19 pandemic in Kenya. While COVID-19 restrictions temporarily reduced the risk of a measles outbreak, Caroline Mburu, Ifedayo Adetifa and colleagues estimate that this risk will rapidly rise once the restrictions are lifted. Implementing delayed supplementary immunisation activities will be critical for prevention of measles outbreaks.
Posted 15/01/2021. Yellow Fever is a re-emerging disease whose incidence has increased globally in the last three decades. Although very successful, the stocks of the YF vaccine are often insufficient. Derick Kimathi, George Warimwe and colleagues assessed the immunogenicity and safety of fractional (1/5th) doses. Our results support fractional dosing of all four WHO-prequalified YF vaccines in general adult population as a dose-sparing strategy.
Posted 03/07/2020. Under declining malaria transmission on the Kenyan coast Kilifi, Alice Kamau, Bob Snow and colleagues show that children continue to bear the brunt of mild and severe disease. There was no significant malaria disease or mortality burden in adults. This is contrary to current modelled approaches to malaria disease burden among African adults.
Posted 31/10/2020. Existing neonatal prognostic models are suited for advanced care settings; however, they use parameters that are not available in low-resource settings. Jalemba Aluvaala and colleagues demonstrate that two novel models - NETS and SENSS - using basic routine data can accurately predict in-hospital mortality which may allow us to better understand neonatal mortality.
Posted 09/10/2020. Children with severe anaemia are more likely to get bacterial infections. Kelvin Mokaya, Sarah Atkinson and colleagues discuss how severe anaemia interferes with iron regulation, and how this promotes bacterial growth in blood and dampens immune responses to these bacteria. The authors also suggest possible studies that can be used to explore their hypothesis.
Posted 29/09/2020. In a collaborative effort to investigate the mechanism of protection conferred by the rare Dantu blood group variant, found at highest frequency in East Africa, Silvia Kariuki and colleagues found a strong correlation between red blood cell membrane tension and parasite invasion ability. Increased membrane tension led to resistance to parasite invasion, and Dantu red blood cells had higher average membrane tension, meaning that a greater proportion resisted invasion. The findings from this study could inform the design of drugs that imitate this increased membrane tension to prevent or treat malaria.
The pioneering work of members of the University of Oxford has been recognised in The Queen's Birthday Honours List. The honorands include Professor Peter Horby and six researchers that have played key roles in leading the University’s response to the Coronavirus pandemic, from the development of new vaccines to the discovery of new drug treatments. Professor Guy Thwaites is appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire.
The RECOVERY trial was established as a randomised clinical trial to test a range of potential treatments for patients hospitalised with COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of blood clots forming in their blood vessels, particularly in the lungs. Between November 2020 and March 2021, the RECOVERY trial included nearly 15,000 patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in an assessment of the effects of aspirin, which is widely used to reduce blood clotting in other diseases. There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint of 28-day mortality
Created in March 2020 to assist policymakers to make use of existing evidence in mathematical and epidemiological models to inform strategies for minimising the impact of COVID-19, the CoMo Consortium brings together mathematical modellers, epidemiologists, health economists and public health experts from more than 40 countries across Africa, Asia and South and North America.
Malaria continues to be a major killer, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the world’s most vulnerable populations with more than 500,000 deaths per year, most of them African children. Emergence of resistance to antimalarial drugs is major public health issue. American Society for Microbiology Editor Dr Cesar Arias discusses with Professor Sir Nick White the latest information on this rapidly evolving field.
The University of Oxford announces the launch of a centre of global research collaboration and excellence, the Pandemic Sciences Centre. The need for partnership between academic excellence, industry and public health organisations is one of the key lessons learned from the coronavirus pandemic. This centre will unite disciplines, and sectors, to build agile, equitable partnerships that can tackle complex problems and respond to pandemic threats at any time.
COVID-19 in Nepal is out of hand and slowly, but surely tracking the infection in India. Although many healthcare workers have been vaccinated throughout the country, the actual vaccination rate is likely very low for the entire country. Buddha Basynat discusses Nepal’s COVID response so far, and why vaccines are an urgent priority.