Posted 22/09/2021. Kelvin Mokaya, Sarah Atkinson and colleagues found that children with severe malaria anaemia have higher risk of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteraemia, and lower levels of the iron-regulating hormone, hepcidin (even with Salmonella coinfection) compared to other forms of malaria. Reduced hepcidin may increase iron availability for bacterial growth in the Salmonella-containing vacuole.
24/09/2021. Plasmodium vivax in SE Asia and Oceania is less sensitive to primaquine compared to other regions and needs a higher target dose - 0.5 mg/kg. Bob Taylor and colleagues propose a new regimen that was designed using pharmacokinetic simulation and takes into account that children need higher mg/kg doses compared to adults.
Posted 21/09/2021. The WHO's ‘5 moments’ is the dominant paradigm for hand hygiene globally. While ‘5 moments' has many benefits and has had a significant clinical impact, it also has many weaknesses. Jacob McKnight and colleagues explore how this important paradigm can be improved to reflect the latest research in hand hygiene.
Posted 15/09/2021. In Cambodian G6PD deficient variants, G6PD enzyme activity is unaffected by baseline reticulocyte counts but rises and correlates with posttreatment reticulocytosis. Qualitative G6PD tests are unlikely to misdiagnose G6PD deficient males at presentation. Too few G6PD heterozygous females preclude drawing inferences; more research is needed in this group.
Posted 14/09/2021. Little is known about why scrub typhus and murine typhus vary through time and space. Tamalee Roberts and colleagues investigated the impacts of climate and environment on both neglected diseases in Laos. The results suggest that global heating will increase their incidence and distribution, requiring interventions to reduce their burden.
Posted 17/09/2021. One of the policies to achieve malaria elimination in the near future is reactive case detection. A secondary analysis of a large dataset of mass drug administrations in Greater Mekong Subregion found that reactive case detection in this setting is costly but results only in minimal benefits, by Lorenz Von Seidlein and colleagues
Posted 02/09/2021. A cross-sectional survey of G6PD deficiency genotypes and phenotypes of nearly two thousand girls and women living on malarious Sumba island in eastern Indonesia assessed risk of hemolytic crisis with primaquine therapy against latent malaria with G6PD screening technologies. These findings by Kevin Baird and colleagues will help guide the selection of G6PD screening methodology and practice.
Posted 01/09/2021. Rob Paton, Alice Kamau and colleagues analysed a data series of over 6000 hospital records of malaria admissions among children aged 3 months to 9 years. A 25% reduction in transmission halved the rate of severe malaria hospitalization. Severe malaria remains a burden predominantly in children under 5 years, regardless of the level of malaria transmission.
Posted 31/08/2021. Using a simple One Health survey design, this pilot study by Juan Carrique-Mas and colleagues measured AMU in the four commonly farmed animal species in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) and compared it to human AMU using different metrics. Lessons from this study can be used in the formulation of One Health surveillance systems.
Posted 27/08/2021. Demographic and epidemiological changes have prompted thinking on the need to broaden the child health agenda to include care for paediatric complex and chronic conditions, however such expansion is threatened by workforce shortages. Yingxi Zhao and colleagues reviewed how task sharing could support expanded paediatrics services provision in LMICs, especially beyond acute infectious diseases and malnutrition that are widely and historically shifted.
Posted 24/08/2021. Suicide is a leading cause of maternal death globally. On the Thailand-Myanmar border, 8% of refugee women and 3% of migrant women experienced suicidal thoughts during pregnancy and postnatally. The greatest risk factors for suicidal thoughts were unplanned pregnancy and past trauma. Community interventions and targeted prevention initiatives are urgently needed to help lower the rates of people dying by suicide, by Gracia Fellmeth and colleagues.
Posted 06/08/2021. Preprints are increasingly being used to share non-peer-reviewed manuscripts to enable the rapid dissemination of research. In particular, they have become an important source of information for wider audiences keen to follow COVID-19 research developments, including news, social media and policymakers. This practice raises several challenges in publication ethics and integrity. Paul Newton and colleagues set out the need for good practice.
Posted 03/08/2021. Ribavirin is the only available Lassa fever treatment. The rationale for using ribavirin is based on one clinical study conducted in the early 1980s. However, reanalysis by Alex Salam and colleagues of previous unpublished data reveals that ribavirin may actually be harmful in some Lassa fever patients. An urgent reevaluation of ribavirin is therefore needed.
Posted 30/07/2021. A reliable catchment area is essential to define community needs (education, health care and social care) and population denominators. However, catchments are often implemented based on convenience disregarding implications on accuracy, planning and service seeking behaviour. Peter Macharia and colleagues revisit the issue by considering common approaches, key issues, and best practices in defining a reliable service catchment area
Posted 27/07/2021. This qualitative study by Mira Schneiders and colleagues discusses the important nutrition-related roles and responsibilities of grandparents caring for grandchildren in rural Cambodian ‘skip-generation’ households. Grandparents appear highly motivated to improve grandchildren’s health and nutrition, but lack necessary resources, leading to frequent moral dilemmas and ethical trade-offs. Interventions to improve child health and nutrition should be designed to be inclusive of older caregivers.
Posted 23/07/2021. Effective management and leadership are essential for everyday health system resilience, but health managers are often under-prepared and under-supported in these roles. Particular challenges have been observed in communication skills, emotional competence and supportive oversight. Jacinta Nzinga and colleagues share their learning from implementing a package of leadership development interventions in Kenya
Posted 20/07/2021. The ethical dilemmas faced by frontline staff conducting health research among ‘vulnerable’ populations are increasingly recognized. However, there is little documented on how staff might be supported in identifying and handling these dilemmas. Sassy Molyneux and colleagues share an approach and tools they developed in Kenya, centred on group reflections linked to a set of policy responses tailored to the context. They encourage further adaptation and evaluation of the approach
Posted 16/07/2021. Severe metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury are major causes of mortality in children with severe malaria but are often underdiagnosed in low resource settings. What prognostic factors are associated with severe metabolic acidosis and uraemia in African children with severe falciparum malaria? Secondary analysis of a randomized trial by Mavuto Mukaka and colleagues
Posted 13/07/2021. The overwhelming COVID-19 case numbers and deaths expected in African countries, as seen elsewhere following identification of the first COVID-19 cases, have not materialised. However, through serosurveillance of blood donors, Ifedayo Adetifa, Sophie Uyoga and colleagues demonstrate widespread SARS-CoV-2 infection in Kenya despite the lower COVID-19 cases and associated mortality.
The fast spread of the highly infectious Delta variant underscores the need for faster identification of COVID-19 mutations. Uniting governments and medical communities in this challenge, the University of Oxford and Oracle’s Global Pathogen Analysis System (GPAS) is now being used by organizations on nearly every continent. Institutions using the platform include OUCRU in Vietnam and institutions in Canada, Chile, Australia and the UK. GPAS is also now part of the Public Health England New Variant Assessment Platform.
The University of Oxford remains top of the table in latest Times Higher Education World University Rankings. In a year dominated by the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, the rankings reflect the vital role of universities in understanding and managing the crisis as a number of institutions around the world saw significant boosts in their citation scores from Covid-19 focused research.
Every year, over a million children fall ill with tuberculosis (TB) globally, and about a quarter die from this potentially preventable and curable disease. The main challenge remains the diagnosis of TB, especially in resource-constrained settings. We currently need to collect mucus from the lungs or liquid contents of the stomach, which must be collected in a hospital. Different ways to diagnosis TB in children are urgently needed, especially for those infected with HIV. An international collaboration is now conducting a large diagnostic study in Uganda to fill this gap. The study aims to detect TB bacteria in body fluids such as blood, urine, stool and saliva that are easier to collect.
The first patients are being vaccinated as part of the UK’s rollout of the Oxford / AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, at the Oxford University NHS Hospitals Trust. The Oxford AstraZeneca vaccinations will be delivered at a small number of hospitals for the first few days for surveillance purposes, as is standard practice, before the bulk of supplies are sent to hundreds of GP-led services later in the week.
Oxford is world-famous for research excellence and home to some of the most talented people from across the globe. To showcase our global research, the University launched a Global Research Map, highlighting areas of research we are conducting overseas.
Oxford University’s enduring global reputation, cutting edge research and unique teaching environment have helped retain first place in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for a fifth consecutive year. THE rankings use 13 separate performance indicators to cover universities’ core missions across teaching, research, knowledge transfer and international outlook. The award follows a year when the University of Oxford has been at the centre of international attention for its work on finding a vaccine for COVID-19 as well as taking a leading role in trialling therapeutic drugs and antibody testing.