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The Africa Oxford Initiative (AfOx) invites applications for the 2019 AfOx Visiting Fellowships Programme. Our programme is designed to enhance academic mobility and network building. We support African scholars and researchers working over various areas to spend periods of flexible time in Oxford.
Validity and reliability of the Neurodevelopmental Screening Tool (NDST) in screening for neurodevelopmental disorders in children living in rural Kenyan coast.
Background: There are no data on the precise burden of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in Africa, despite high incidence of risk factors. Ten Questions Questionnaire (TQQ) has been used extensively in Africa to screen neurological impairments but not autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). The Neurodevelopmental Screening Tool (NDST) has reliably assessed NDD in Asia; its validity in Africa is unknown. Methods: Using NDST and TQQ, we screened 11,223 children aged 6-9 years in Kilifi, Kenya. We invited all screen-positives and a proportion of screen-negative children for confirmatory diagnosis of NDD using clinical history, neuropsychological assessments and interviews. Results: In total, 2,245 (20%) children screened positive for NDD. Confirmatory testing was completed for 1,564 (69.7%) screen-positive and 598 (6.7%) screen-negative children. NDST's sensitivity was 87.8% (95%CI: 88.3-88.5%) for any NDD, 96.5% (95%CI:96.1-96.8%) ASD and 89.2% (95%CI: 88.7-89.8%) for ADHD. Moderate/severe neurological impairments' sensitivities ranged from 85.7% (95%CI: 85.1-86.3%) for hearing impairments to 100.00% (100.0-100.0%) for motor impairments. NDST had higher sensitivities than TQQ for epilepsy (88.8 vs 86.7), motor impairments (100.0 vs 93.7) and cognitive impairment (88.2 vs 84.3). Sensitivities for visual and hearing impairments were comparable in both tools. NDST specificity was 82.8% (95%CI: 82.1-83.5%) for any NDD, 94.5% (95%CI: 94.0-94.9%) for ASD and 81.7% (95%CI: 81.0-82.4%) for ADHD. The specificities range for neurological impairments was 80.0% (95%CI: 79.3-80.7%) for visual impairments to 93.8% (95%CI: 93.4-94.3%) for epilepsy. Negative predictive values were generally very high (≤100%), but most positive predictive values (PPV) were low (≤17.8%). Domain specific internal consistency ranged from 0.72 (95%CI: 0.70-0.74) for ADHD to 0.89 (95%CI: 0.87-0.90) for epilepsy. Conclusions: NDST possesses high sensitivity and specificity for detecting different domains of NDD in Kilifi. Low PPV suggest that positive diagnoses should be confirmed when samples are drawn from a population with low disease prevalence.
Effects of iron intake on neurobehavioural outcomes in African children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Background: Iron deficiency and developmental delay are common in African children. While experimental studies indicate an important role of iron in brain development, effects of iron on child development remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of iron supplementation or fortification on neurobehavioural outcomes in African children and further summarise these effects in children living in non-African countries for comparison. Methods: : We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Scopus and Cochrane Library for studies published up to 9th March 2021. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating effects of iron supplementation or fortification on neurobehavioural outcomes in children. Due to heterogeneity in study methods, we analysed the studies qualitatively and only seven RCTs with 11 arms were meta-analysed. Results: : We identified 2155 studies and included 34 studies (n=9808) in the systematic review. Only five studies (n=1294) included African children while 29 (n=8514) included children living in non-African countries. Of the five African studies, two (n=647) reported beneficial effects of iron supplementation on neurobehavioural outcomes in anaemic children while three (n=647) found no beneficial effects. Of 29 studies in children living in non-African countries, nine (n=2925) reported beneficial effects of iron supplementation or fortification on neurobehavioural outcomes, seven (n=786) reported beneficial effects only in children who had iron deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia or anaemia while 13 (n=4803) reported no beneficial effects. Meta-analysis of seven studies (n=775) in non-African countries showed no beneficial effects of iron supplementation on cognitive or motor development in children. Conclusions: : There are few studies in African children despite the high burden of iron deficiency and developmental delay in this population. Evidence on the effects of iron supplementation on neurobehavioural outcomes remains unclear and there is need for further well-powered studies evaluating these effects in African populations. PROSPERO registration: CRD42018091278 (20/03/2018)
ObjectiveTo analyse data from 2016-17 from a hospital-based antimicrobial resistance surveillance with national coverage in a network of hospitals Viet Nam.MethodsWe analysed data from 13 hospitals, 3 less than the dataset from the 2012-13 period. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing data from the clinical microbiology laboratories from samples sent in for routine diagnostics were used. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2018 guidelines were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing interpretation. WHONET was used for data entry, management and analysis.Results42,553 deduplicated isolates were included in this analysis; including 30,222 (71%) Gram-negative and 12,331 (29%) Gram-positive bacteria. 8,793 (21%) were from ICUs and 7,439 (18%) isolates were from invasive infections. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently detected species with 9,092 (21%) and 4,833 isolates (11%), respectively; followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (3,858 isolates - 9.1%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (3,870 isolates - 9%). Bacteria were mainly isolated from sputum (8,798 isolates - 21%), blood (7,118 isolates - 17%) and urine (5,202 isolates - 12%). Among Gram-positives 3,302/4,515 isolates (73%) of S. aureus were MRSA; 99/290 (34%) of Enterococcus faecium were resistant to vancomycin; and 58% (663/1,136) of Streptococcus pneumoniae proportion were reduced susceptible to penicillin. Among Gram-negatives 59% (4,085/6,953) and 40% (1,186/2,958) of E. coli and K. pneumoniae produced ESBL and 29% (376/1,298) and 11% (961/8,830) were resistant to carbapenems, respectively. 79% (2855/3622) and 45% (1,514/3,376) of Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were carbapenem resistant, respectively. 88% (804/911) of Haemophilus influenzae were ampicillin resistant and 18/253 (7%) of Salmonella spp. and 7/46 (15%) of Shigella spp. were resistant to fluoroquinolones. The number of isolates from which data were submitted in the 2016-2017 period was twice as high as in 2012-2013. AMR proportions were higher in 2016-2017 for most pathogen-antimicrobial combinations of interest including imipenem-resistant A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa and Enterobacterales.ConclusionsThe data show alarmingly high and increasing resistant proportions among important organisms in Viet Nam. AMR proportions varied across hospital types and should be interpreted with caution because existing sampling bias and missing information on whether isolates were community or hospital acquired. Affordable and scalable ways to adopt a sample- or case-based approach across the network should be explored and clinical data should be integrated to help provide more accurate inferences of the surveillance data.
Salmeterol compared with slow-release terbutaline in nocturnal asthma. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, sequential clinical trial. French Multicenter Study Group.
The aim of the multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group clinical trial with a 2-week treatment period was to compare the efficacy and safety of salmeterol (50 micrograms twice daily) with slow-release (SR) terbutaline (5 mg orally, twice daily) in nocturnal asthma. A total of 159 asthmatic adults (FEV, 50-90% of predicted value; sex ratio: 0.87) with at least two nocturnal awakenings during a 7-d run-in period was included in the study. Patients were centrally randomized with a national computer network (Minitel). The main variable (number of awakening-free nights during the last week of treatment) was analyzed according to a sequential method with the one-sided triangular test. The number of awakening-free nights (+/- SD) was significantly higher in the salmeterol group: 5.3 +/- 2.4 vs 4.6 +/- 2.3 (P = 0.006). Salmeterol was significantly more effective than SR-terbutaline in the following factors: number of patients without any awakening during the last week of treatment (50% vs 27%, P = 0.003), mean morning PEF (351 +/- 109 l/min-1 vs 332 +/- 105 l/min-1, P = 0.04), PEF diurnal variation 6 +/- 10% vs 11 +/- 12%, P = 0.01), overall assessment of efficacy by the patient and the investigator (P = 0.001 and 0.005, respectively), and daily rescue salbutamol intakes (P = 0.004). In the salmeterol group, significantly fewer patients reported adverse events (16% vs 29%, P = 0.04).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
[Real-time monitoring of anti-influenza vaccination in the 65 and over population in France based on vaccine sales].
BackgroundThe aim of this study was to describe a tool based on vaccine sales to estimate vaccination coverage against seasonal influenza in near real-time in the French population aged 65 and over.MethodsVaccine sales data available on sale-day +1 came from a stratified sample of 3004 pharmacies in metropolitan France. Vaccination coverage rates were estimated between 2009 and 2014 and compared with those obtained based on vaccination refund data from the general health insurance scheme.ResultsThe seasonal vaccination coverage estimates were highly correlated with those obtained from refund data. They were also slightly higher, which can be explained by the inclusion of non-reimbursed vaccines and the consideration of all individuals aged 65 and over. We have developed an online tool that provides estimates of daily vaccination coverage during each vaccination campaign.ConclusionThe developed tool provides a reliable and near real-time estimation of vaccination coverage among people aged 65 and over. It can be used to evaluate and adjust public health messages.
Transmission patterns of hyper-endemic multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Cambodian neonatal unit: a longitudinal study with whole genome sequencing
AbstractBackgroundKlebsiella pneumoniae is an important and increasing cause of life-threatening disease in hospitalised neonates. Third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GC-R) is frequently a marker of multi-drug resistance, and can complicate management of infections. 3GC-R K. pneumoniae is hyper-endemic in many developing country settings, but its epidemiology is poorly understood and prospective studies of endemic transmission are lacking. We aimed to determine the transmission dynamics of 3GC-R K. pneumoniae in a newly opened neonatal unit (NU) in Cambodia.MethodsWe performed a prospective longitudinal study between September and November 2013. Rectal swabs from 37 consented patients were collected upon NU admission and every three days thereafter. Morphologically different colonies from swabs growing cefpodoxime-resistant K. pneumoniae were selected for whole-genome sequencing (WGS).Results32/37 (86%) patients screened positive for 3GC-R K. pneumoniae and 93 colonies from 119 swabs were sequenced. Isolates were resistant to a median of six (range 3-9) antimicrobials. WGS revealed high diversity; pairwise distances between isolates from the same patient were either 0-1 SNV or >1,000 SNVs; 19/32 colonized patients harboured K. pneumoniae colonies differing by >1000 SNVs. Diverse lineages accounted for 18 probable importations to the NU and nine probable transmission clusters involving 19/37 (51%) of screened patients. Median cluster size was 5 patients (range 3-9).ConclusionsThe epidemiology of 3GC-R K. pneumoniae was characterised by multiple introductions and a dense network of cross-infection, with half of screened neonates part of a transmission cluster. Efforts to reduce the 3GC-R K. pneumoniae disease burden should consider targeting both processes.