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OBJECTIVE:To establish a hospital-based surveillance network with national coverage for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antibiotic consumption in Viet Nam. METHODS:A 16-hospital network (Viet Nam Resistance: VINARES) was established consisting of national and provincial-level hospitals across the country. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results from routine clinical diagnostic specimens and antibiotic consumption data in Defined Daily Dose per 1,000 bed days (DDD/1000 patient-days) were prospectively collected and analysed between October 2012 and September 2013. RESULTS:Data from a total of 24 732 de-duplicated clinical isolates were reported. The most common bacteria were:Escherichia coli (4 437 isolates, 18%), Klebsiella spp. (3 290 isolates, 13%) and Acinetobacter spp. (2 895 isolates, 12%). The hospital average antibiotic consumption was 918 DDD/1000 patient-days. Third-generation cephalosporins were the most frequently used antibiotic class (223 DDD/1000 patient-days, 24%), followed by fluoroquinolones (151 DDD/1000 patient-days, 16%) and second-generation cephalosporins (112 DDD/1000 patient-days, 12%). Proportions of antibiotic resistance were high: 1 098/1 580 (69%) of S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant (MRSA); 115/344 isolates (33%) and 90/358 (25%) of S. pneumoniae had reduced susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone, respectively. 180/2 977 (6%) of E. coli and 242/1 526 (16%) of K. pneumoniae were resistant to imipenem, respectively; 602/1 826 (33%) of P. aeruginosa were resistant to ceftazidime and 578/1 765 (33%) to imipenem. 1 495/2 138 (70%) of Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to carbapenems and 2/333 (1%) to colistin. CONCLUSIONS:These data are valuable in providing a baseline for AMR among common bacterial pathogens in Vietnamese hospitals and to assess the impact of interventions.

Original publication





Journal of global antimicrobial resistance

Publication Date



Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Viet Nam. Electronic address:


VINARES consortium