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BACKGROUND:The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is a hotspot of antimicrobial use (AMU), but there is no information on the quality of the labelling and strength of antimicrobial products used in poultry production. METHODS:Based on a large random sample of farms, we identified the 20 most used antimicrobial products in the area, and investigated their antimicrobial active ingredient (AAI) content by UPLC-MS/MS (91 analytical tests). RESULTS:Only 17/59 (28.8%) batches contained all AAIs within 10% of the declared strength. Worryingly, 65.0% products provided in their label preparation guidelines for both therapeutic and prophylactic use. Withdrawal times for both meat and eggs were stated in 8/20 (40%) products. CONCLUSION:Results highlight deficiencies in quality and labelling contents that undermine authorities' efforts to discourage inappropriate use of antimicrobials.

Original publication





Veterinary medicine and science

Publication Date





512 - 516


Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.