Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND:Complications from typhoid fever disease have been estimated to occur in 10%-15% of hospitalized patients, with evidence of a higher risk in children and when delaying the implementation of effective antimicrobial treatment. We estimated the prevalence of complications in hospitalized patients with culture-confirmed typhoid fever and the effects of delaying the implementation of effective antimicrobial treatment and age on the prevalence and risk of complications. METHODS:A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed using studies in the PubMed database. We rated risk of bias and conducted random-effects meta-analyses. Days of disease at hospitalization (DDA) was used as a surrogate for delaying the implementation of effective antimicrobial treatment. Analyses were stratified by DDA (DDA <10 versus ≥10 mean/median days of disease) and by age (children versus adults). Differences in risk were assessed using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated with the I2 value and funnel plot analysis, respectively. RESULTS:The pooled prevalence of complications estimated among hospitalized typhoid fever patients was 27% (95% CI, 21%-32%; I2 = 90.9%, P < .0001). Patients with a DDA ≥ 10 days presented higher prevalence (36% [95% CI, 29%-43%]) and three times greater risk of severe disease (OR, 3.00 [95% CI, 2.14-4.17]; P < .0001) than patients arriving earlier (16% [95% CI, 13%- 18%]). Difference in prevalence and risk by age groups were not significant. CONCLUSIONS:This meta-analysis identified a higher overall prevalence of complications than previously reported and a strong association between duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization and risk of serious complications.

Original publication





Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Publication Date





S435 - S448


International Vaccine Institute, Seoul National University Research Park, Republic of Korea.


Humans, Typhoid Fever, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Hospitalization, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Retrospective Studies, Prospective Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Adult, Child