Bacteremia Among Febrile Patients Attending Selected Healthcare Facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Popoola O., Kehinde A., Ogunleye V., Adewusi OJ., Toy T., Mogeni OD., Aroyewun EO., Agbi S., Adekanmbi O., Adepoju A., Muyibi S., Adebiyi I., Elaturoti OO., Nwimo C., Adeoti H., Omotosho T., Akinlabi OC., Adegoke PA., Adeyanju OA., Panzner U., Baker S., Park SE., Marks F., Okeke IN.
BACKGROUND:The relative contribution of bacterial infections to febrile disease is poorly understood in many African countries due to diagnostic limitations. This study screened pediatric and adult patients attending 4 healthcare facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria, for bacteremia and malaria parasitemia. METHODS:Febrile patients underwent clinical diagnosis, malaria parasite testing, and blood culture. Bacteria from positive blood cultures were isolated and speciated using biochemical and serological methods, and Salmonella subtyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion. RESULTS:A total of 682 patients were recruited between 16 June and 16 October 2017; 467 (68.5%) were <18 years of age. Bacterial pathogens were cultured from the blood of 117 (17.2%) patients, with Staphylococcus aureus (69 [59.0%]) and Salmonella enterica (34 [29.1%]) being the most common species recovered. Twenty-seven (79.4%) of the Salmonella isolates were serovar Typhi and the other 7 belonged to nontyphoidal Salmonella serovarieties. Thirty-four individuals were found to be coinfected with Plasmodium falciparum and bacteria. Five (14.7%) of these coinfections were with Salmonella, all in children aged <5 years. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that most of the Salmonella and Staphylococcus isolates were multidrug resistant. CONCLUSIONS:The study demonstrates that bacteria were commonly recovered from febrile patients with or without malaria in this location. Focused and extended epidemiological studies are needed for the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines that have the potential to prevent a major cause of severe community-acquired febrile diseases in our locality.