Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

<ns5:p>Two billion people are infected with <ns5:italic>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</ns5:italic>, leading to 10 million new cases of active tuberculosis and 1.5 million deaths annually. Universal access to drug susceptibility testing (DST) has become a World Health Organization priority. We previously developed a software tool, <ns5:italic>Mykrobe predictor</ns5:italic>, which provided offline species identification and drug resistance predictions for <ns5:italic>M. tuberculosis </ns5:italic>from whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. Performance was insufficient to support the use of WGS as an alternative to conventional phenotype-based DST, due to mutation catalogue limitations. </ns5:p><ns5:p> </ns5:p><ns5:p> Here we present a new tool, <ns5:italic>Mykrobe</ns5:italic>, which provides the same functionality based on a new software implementation. Improvements include i) an updated mutation catalogue giving greater sensitivity to detect pyrazinamide resistance, ii) support for user-defined resistance catalogues, iii) improved identification of non-tuberculous mycobacterial species, and iv) an updated statistical model for Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing data. <ns5:italic>Mykrobe</ns5:italic> is released under MIT license at We incorporate mutation catalogues from the CRyPTIC consortium et al. (2018) and from Walker et al. (2015), and make improvements based on performance on an initial set of 3206 and an independent set of 5845 <ns5:italic>M. tuberculosis</ns5:italic> Illumina sequences. To give estimates of error rates, we use a prospectively collected dataset of 4362 <ns5:italic>M. tuberculosis isolates</ns5:italic>. Using culture based DST as the reference, we estimate <ns5:italic>Mykrobe</ns5:italic> to be 100%, 95%, 82%, 99% sensitive and 99%, 100%, 99%, 99% specific for rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol resistance prediction respectively. We benchmark against four other tools on 10207 (=5845+4362) samples, and also show that <ns5:italic>Mykrobe</ns5:italic> gives concordant results with nanopore data. </ns5:p><ns5:p> </ns5:p><ns5:p> We measure the ability of <ns5:italic>Mykrobe</ns5:italic>-based DST to guide personalized therapeutic regimen design in the context of complex drug susceptibility profiles, showing 94% concordance of implied regimen with that driven by phenotypic DST, higher than all other benchmarked tools.</ns5:p>

Original publication





Wellcome Open Research


Faculty of 1000 Ltd

Publication Date





191 - 191