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It has been commonly assumed that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection confers long-term protection against reinfection, preventing ZIKV from re-emerging in previously affected areas for several years. However, the long-term immune response to ZIKV following an outbreak remains poorly documented. We compared results from eight serological surveys before and after known ZIKV outbreaks in French Polynesia and Fiji, including cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We found evidence of a decline in seroprevalence in both countries over a two-year period following first reported ZIKV transmission. This decline was concentrated in adults, while high seroprevalence persisted in children. In the Fiji cohort, there was also a significant decline in neutralizing antibody titres against ZIKV, but not against dengue viruses that circulated during the same period.

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Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.