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The essential role of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in disease control is compromised every time a test is not performed correctly or its result is not reported accurately and promptly. A mobile app that utilizes the camera and connectivity of a common smartphone can fill this role of supporting the test's proper execution and the automatic transmission of results. In a consensus process with 51 expert participants representing the needs of clinical users, healthcare programs, health information systems, surveillance systems, and global public health stakeholders, we developed a Target Product Profile describing the minimal and optimal characteristics of such an app. We collected feedback over two rounds and refined the characteristics to arrive at a preferred agreement level of greater than 75%, with an average of 92% agreement (range: 79-100%). As per this feedback, such an app should be compatible with many RDTs and mobile devices without needing accessories. The app should assist the user with RDT-specific instructions, include checks to facilitate quality control of the testing process and suggest results with ≥ 95% accuracy across common lighting conditions while allowing the user to determine the final result. Data from the app must be under the control of the health program that operates it, and the app should support at least one of the common data exchange formats HL7, FHIR, ASTM or JSON. The Target Product Profile also lays out the minimum data security and privacy requirements for the app.

Original publication





PloS one

Publication Date





Foundation for Innovative Diagnostics (FIND), Geneva, Switzerland.


Humans, Communicable Diseases, Diagnostic Tests, Routine, Early Diagnosis, Population Surveillance, Feedback, Delphi Technique, Preventive Health Services, Mobile Applications