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Epidemiologic studies of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are unusual in developing countries, especially Thailand. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors for HCV among military conscripts, including a sample of 5,246 men (1:30 sample), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 positive men (N = 500) between 2005 and 2008. The HCV prevalence was 2.2% in the sampled group and 8.4% in HIV-1 sero-positives. Among the sampled group, HIV-1 infection, injection drug use (IDU) history, and unsafe injections were associated with HCV infection; adjusted prevalence rate ratios [RRs; 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] were 3.7 (1.04-12.77), 1.9 (1.04-3.54), and 1.8 (1.02-3.11), respectively. Among HIV-1 sero-positives, an IDU history and residence in southern Thailand were associated with HCV prevalence; adjusted RRs (95% CIs) were 3.5 (1.71-7.24) and 2.6 (1.18-5.61), respectively. Public health measures to prevent HCV in Thailand should focus on reducing injection drug use and other exposures to unsafe injections among young Thai men.

Original publication





The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene

Publication Date





433 - 439


Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Thammasat University, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, Thailand.


Humans, HIV-1, Hepatitis C, HIV Seropositivity, Substance Abuse, Intravenous, Prevalence, Multivariate Analysis, Risk Factors, Cross-Sectional Studies, Age Distribution, Adolescent, Thailand, Male, Young Adult, Surveys and Questionnaires