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BACKGROUND:Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains a serious public health problem with poor treatment outcomes. Predictors of poor outcomes vary in different regions. Vietnam is among the top 30 high burden of MDR-TB countries. We describe demographic characteristics and identify risk factors for poor outcome among patients with MDR-TB in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the most populous city in Vietnam. METHODS:This retrospective study included 2266 patients who initiated MDR-TB treatment between 2011 and 2015 in HCMC. Treatment outcomes were available for 2240 patients. Data was collected from standardized paper-based treatment cards and electronic records. A Kruskal Wallis test was used to assess changes in median age and body mass index (BMI) over time, and a Wilcoxon test was used to compare the median BMI of patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Chi squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression with multiple imputation for missing data was used to identify risk factors for poor outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using R program. RESULTS:Among 2266 eligible cases, 60.2% had failed on a category I or II treatment regimen, 57.7% were underweight, 30.2% had diabetes mellitus and 9.6% were HIV positive. The notification rate increased 24.7% from 2011 to 2015. The treatment success rate was 73.3%. Risk factors for poor treatment outcome included HIV co-infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.94), advanced age (aOR: 1.45 for every increase of 5 years for patients 60 years or older), having history of MDR-TB treatment (aOR: 5.53), sputum smear grade scanty or 1+ (aOR: 1.47), smear grade 2+ or 3+ (aOR: 2.06), low BMI (aOR: 0.83 for every increase of 1 kg/m2 of BMI for patients with BMI 

Original publication





BMC infectious diseases

Publication Date





Tuberculosis group, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, 764 Vo Van Kiet street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.


Sputum, Humans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant, AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections, Treatment Outcome, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Incidence, Risk Factors, Retrospective Studies, Follow-Up Studies, Age Factors, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial, Adult, Middle Aged, Vietnam, Female, Male, Coinfection