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BackgroundBecause international funding for malaria control is plateauing, affected countries that receive foreign funding are expected to maintain a constant budget while continuing to reduce Plasmodium transmission. To investigate the appropriateness of a malaria control policy in Madagascar, the effectiveness of all currently deployed malaria control interventions (MCIs) was measured.MethodsA nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012-2013 at 62 sites throughout Madagascar. A total of 15,746 individuals of all ages were tested for Plasmodium infection using rapid diagnostic tests and were interviewed about their use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp), and exposure to information, education and communication (IEC) campaigns. The association between Plasmodium infection and MCI exposure was calculated using multivariate multilevel models, and the protective effectiveness (PE) of an intervention was defined as one minus the odds ratio of this association.ResultsThe individual PE of regular LLIN use was high and significant (41 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 23-54), whereas its community PE was not. The PE of IRS at the household level was significant in one transmission pattern only (44 %, 95 % CI 11-65), and the community PE with high IRS coverage (>75 %) was high and significant overall (78 %, 95 % CI 44-91). Using LLINs after IRS increased the PE, and the reciprocal was also true. The maternal PE of IPTp was high but non-significant (65 %, 95 % CI -32 to 91). The PE of IEC was low, non-significant and restricted to certain areas (24 %, 95 % CI -34 to 57).ConclusionsThis snapshot of the effectiveness of MCIs confirms that integrated vector control is required in malaria control policies in Madagascar and suggests combining MCIs when one is questionable. Policymakers should consider the local effectiveness of all deployed MCIs through a similar phase IV assessment.

Original publication





Malaria journal

Publication Date





Malaria Research Unit, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, BP 1274, 101, Avaradoha, Antananarivo, Madagascar.


Humans, Malaria, Diagnostic Tests, Routine, Mass Screening, Cross-Sectional Studies, Health Education, Communicable Disease Control, Mosquito Control, Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Middle Aged, Child, Infant, Health Services Research, Madagascar, Female, Male, Disease Transmission, Infectious, Young Adult, Surveys and Questionnaires