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<h4>Background</h4>Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are associated with both diarrhea and bacteremia. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is common in NTS in low-middle income countries, but the major source(s) of AMR NTS in humans are not known. Here, we aimed to assess the role of animals as a source of AMR in human NTS infections in Vietnam. We retrospectively combined and analyzed 672 NTS human and animal isolates from four studies in southern Vietnam and compared serovars, sequence types (ST), and AMR profiles. We generated a population structure of circulating organisms and aimed to attribute sources of AMR in NTS causing invasive and noninvasive disease in humans using Bayesian multinomial mixture models.<h4>Results</h4>Among 672 NTS isolates, 148 (22%) originated from human blood, 211 (31%) from human stool, and 313 (47%) from animal stool. The distribution of serovars, STs, and AMR profiles differed among sources; serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Weltevreden were the most common in human blood, human stool, and animals, respectively. We identified an association between the source of NTS and AMR profile; the majority of AMR isolates were isolated from human blood (p < 0.001). Modelling by ST-AMR profile found chickens and pigs were likely the major sources of AMR NTS in human blood and stool, respectively; but unsampled sources were found to be a major contributor.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Antimicrobial use in food animals is hypothesized to play role in the emergence of AMR in human pathogens. Our cross-sectional population-based approach suggests a significant overlap between AMR in NTS in animals and humans, but animal NTS does explain the full extent of AMR in human NTS infections in Vietnam.

Original publication





Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases

Publication Date





Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Australia.