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Significance Methods for analyzing individual-level geo-located disease data have existed for some time, but have rarely been used to analyze endemic human diseases. Here we apply such methods to nearly a decade’s worth of uniquely detailed epidemiological data on incidence of the deadly vector-borne disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its secondary condition, post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), to quantify the spread of infection around cases in space and time by inferring who infected whom, and estimate the relative contribution of different infection states to transmission. Our findings highlight the key role long diagnosis delays and PKDL play in maintaining VL transmission. This detailed characterization of the spatiotemporal transmission of VL will help inform targeting of interventions around VL and PKDL cases.

Original publication





Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences


Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Publication Date





25742 - 25750