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Pneumonia accounted for 15% of the 6.3 million deaths among children younger than five years in 2013, a total of approximately 935,000 deaths worldwide. Routine vaccination against common childhood illnesses has been identified as one of the most cost-effective strategies to prevent death from pneumonia. Vaccine-preventable or potentially preventable diseases commonly linked with respiratory tract infections include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza type-b (Hib), pertussis, influenza, measles, and tuberculosis. Although here have been great strides in the development and administration of effective vaccines, the countries that carry the largest disease burdens still struggle to vaccinate their children and newer conjugated vaccines remain out of reach for many. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) has identified priority areas for innovation in research in all aspects of immunisation development and delivery to ensure equitable access to vaccines for all.

Original publication





Paediatric respiratory reviews

Publication Date





23 - 30


KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Department of Public Health Research, Health Services Unit, Nairobi, Kenya. Electronic address:


Humans, Whooping Cough, Haemophilus Infections, Tuberculosis, Pulmonary, Pneumonia, Pneumococcal, Measles, Pneumonia, Vaccines, Haemophilus Vaccines, Pertussis Vaccine, Pneumococcal Vaccines, BCG Vaccine, Influenza Vaccines, Measles Vaccine, Developing Countries, Child, Child, Preschool, Infant, Influenza, Human