Environmental, climatic and host population risk factors of human cystic echinococcosis in southwest of Iran.
Ghatee MA., Nikaein K., Taylor WR., Karamian M., Alidadi H., Kanannejad Z., Sehatpour F., Zarei F., Pouladfar G., Pouladfar G.
BackgroundCystic echinococcosis (CE), a worldwide zoonotic disease, is affected by various biological and environmental factors. We investigated dog/livestock populations, climatic and environmental factors influencing the distribution of human CE cases in Fars province, southwest Iran.MethodsWe mapped the addresses of 266 hospitalised CE patients (2004-2014) and studied the effects of different temperature models, mean annual rainfall and humidity, number of frosty days, slope, latitude, land covers, close proximity to nomads travel routes, livestock and dog densities on the occurrence of CE using geographical information systems approach. Data were analyzed by logistic regression.ResultsIn the multivariate model predicting CE, living in an urban setting and densities of cattle and dogs were the most important CE predictors, sequentially. Dry (rained) farm, density of camel and sheep, close proximity to nomads travel routes, humidity, and slope also were considered as the determinants of CE distribution, when analyzed independently. Slope had a negative correlation with CE while temperature, frost days and latitude were not associated with CE.ConclusionsIn our study, an urban setting was the most important risk factor and likely due to a combination of the high density of key life cycle hosts, dogs and livestock, a large human susceptible population and the high number of abattoirs. Farmland and humidity were highly suggestive risk factors and these conditions support the increased survival of Echinococcus granulosus eggs in the soil. These findings support the development of strategies for control of disease. More research is needed test optimal interventions.