Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Clinical Specimens in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Kandel SN., Adhikari N., Dhungel B., Shrestha UT., Angbuhang KB., Karki G., Adhikari B., Banjara MR., Rijal KR., Ghimire P.
IntroductionMethicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial and community infections. mecA gene is considered one of the important virulence factors of S. aureus responsible for acquiring resistance against methicillin. The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and mec A gene.MethodsA total of 39 isolates of S. aureus were isolated from 954 clinical specimens processed in Microbiology laboratory of Himal Hospital, Kathmandu. Antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin, and performed Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for amplification of mecA gene in MRSA isolates.ResultsOut of 954 clinical samples, (16.2%; 153/954) samples had bacterial growth. Among 153 culture positive isolates, 25.5% (39/153) were positive for S. aureus. Among 39 S. aureus (61.5%; 24/39) were multiple drug resistant (MDR). On AST, amoxicillin was detected as the least effective while vancomycin was the most effective. The prevalence of methicillin resistance was 46% (18/39) of which 72.2% (13/18) were positive for mecA gene in PCR assay.ConclusionOne in 4 culture positive isolates from the clinical specimens were S. aureus, of which almost two-thirds were MDR. Around half of the MDR showed MRSA and significant proportion of them were positive for mecA gene. This study concludes that the mecA gene is solely dependent for methicillin resistance in S. aureus but the presence of gene is not obligatory. PCR detection of the mecA gene is reliable, valid and can be suggested for the routine use in diagnostic laboratories.