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This multi-country prospective study investigated whether persistent systemic inflammation, measured by eight plasma biomarkers, in HIV-1-infected Africans during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) (viral load<50 copies/mL), was associated with CD4+ T-cell recovery and viral rebound (>1,000 copies/mL) during long-term treatment. On-ART sCD14 and CRP concentrations were inversely associated with subsequent CD4+ T-cell counts. Risk of viral rebound was increased for participants with higher on-ART CXCL10 concentrations, and reduced for those with a greater sCD163 decline during the first year of ART. Persistent systemic inflammation predicted CD4+ T-cell recovery and viral rebound, warranting further mechanistic research in relation to clinical outcomes.

Original publication





The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date



Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, and Department of Global Health, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.