Candidate gene polymorphisms related to lipid metabolism in Asian Indians living in Durban, South Africa.
Maistry T., Gordon M., Sartorius B., Naidoo DP.
<h4>Background & objectives</h4>Asian Indians have been shown to have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), related to insulin resistance and possibly genetic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic patterns associated with MetS in Asian Indians living in Durban, South Africa.<h4>Methods</h4>Nine hundred and ninety nine participants from the Phoenix Lifestyle Project underwent clinical, biochemical and genetic assessment. MetS was diagnosed according to the harmonized definition. The apolipoprotein A5 Q139X, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) Hinf I, human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) 192Arg/Gln, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) Taq1B, adiponectin 45T>G and leptin (LEP) 25CAG were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction in participants with and without MetS. Univariate-unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted relations were conducted for all analyses.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of MetS was high (49.0%). More females had MetS than males (51.0 vs 42.8%). There was no significant difference in the distribution of genotypes between participants with MetS and those without. Males with the MetS who had the adiponectin TG genotype and human paraoxonase 1 AA genotype were more likely to have reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P=0.001) and higher systolic blood pressure (P=0.018), respectively.<h4>Interpretation & conclusions</h4>About half of the Asian Indians living in Phoenix had MetS. No association between the polymorphisms studied and the risk for MetS was observed. The adiponectin TG genotype may be associated with reduced HDL-C and the human paraoxonase 1 AA genotype with hypertension in males. This suggested that lifestyle factors were the major determinant for MetS in this ethnic group and the genetic risk might be related to its component risk factors than to MetS as an entity.