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In low-resource settings, there is a need to develop models that can address contributions of household and outdoor sources to population exposures. The aim of the study was to model indoor PM2.5 using household characteristics, activities, and outdoor sources. Households belonging to participants in the Mother and Child in the Environment (MACE) birth cohort, in Durban, South Africa, were randomly selected. A structured walk-through identified variables likely to generate PM2.5 . MiniVol samplers were used to monitor PM2.5 for a period of 24 hours, followed by a post-activity questionnaire. Factor analysis was used as a variable reduction tool. Levels of PM2.5 in the south were higher than in the north of the city (P 2.5 levels (P 2.5 levels (P 2.5 predictive model was obtained with model R2 of 50%. Recognizing the challenges in characterizing exposure in environmental epidemiological studies, particularly in resource-constrained settings, modeling provides an opportunity to reasonably estimate indoor pollutant levels in unmeasured homes.

Original publication





Indoor air

Publication Date





228 - 237


Discipline of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.


Humans, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Models, Statistical, Family Characteristics, Air Pollution, Indoor, Environmental Exposure, Environmental Monitoring, Social Class, Poverty, Adult, Child, South Africa, Female, Male, Particulate Matter