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A large community outbreak of norovirus (NV) gastrointestinal infection occurred in Västra Götaland County, Sweden in August 2004, following attendance at recreational lakes. A frequency age-matched case control study was undertaken of persons who had attended these lakes to identify risk factors. 163 cases and 329 controls were included. Analysis indicates that having water in the mouth while swimming (OR=4.7; 95% CI 1.1-20.2), attendance at the main swimming area at Delsjön Lake (OR=25.5; 95% CI 2.5-263.8), taking water home from a fresh water spring near Delsjön lake (OR=17.3; 95% CI 2.7-110.7) and swimming less than 20 m from shore (OR=13.4; 95% CI 2.0-90.2) were significant risk factors. The probable vehicle was local contamination of the lake water (especially at the main swimming area). The source of contamination could not be determined.

Original publication

DOI

10.1080/00365540601053006

Type

Journal

Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date

01/2007

Volume

39

Pages

323 - 331

Addresses

European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), Solna, Sweden. Benns@nicd.ac.za

Keywords

Humans, Norovirus, Caliciviridae Infections, Gastroenteritis, Health Surveys, Risk Factors, Case-Control Studies, Fresh Water, Disease Outbreaks, Swimming, Recreation, Adolescent, Adult, Child, Child, Preschool, Infant, Sweden, Female, Male