Antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review addresses the changing patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella. RECENT FINDINGS: Resistance to chloramphenicol, amicillin and cotrimoxazole is common in Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A in Asia and a few countries of Africa. In some countries, the isolation of multidrug resistant strains appears to be declining. R-type ACSSuT Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 is common in animal and human infections in many industrialized countries. Strains with additional trimethoprim and low-level ciprofloxacin resistance are increasingly seen. Resistance is appearing in new Typhimurium phage types, such as DT204b, and is common in serotypes Hadar and Virchow but not Enteritidis. A variety of Ambler class A and class C beta-lactamase enzymes have now been described causing extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance in different Salmonella serotypes. The overall level of extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance currently appears low. Low-level ciprofloxacin resistance, associated with point mutations in the gyrA gene, is inceasingly common in typhoidal and non-typhoidal serotypes isolated from humans and animals and has been associated with treatment failures. Sporadic reports describe human infections with non-Typhi Salmonella that are fully fluoroquinolone resistant. There is increasing support for the call to revise the fluoroquinolone breakpoints for Salmonella. A study from Denmark suggested that infections with drug resistant Salmonellae are associated with a poorer outcome than drug susceptible infections. SUMMARY: Resistance is increasing to several critical antimicrobials used to treat invasive salmonellosis including extended spectrum cephalosporins and quinolones. In resource poor countries, such drug resistant Salmonella infections may become effectively untreatable.